1. Great Britain is formed of the following parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and is situated on the British Isles which. lie to the west of the continent of Europe. Great Britain is separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. It is washed on the western coast by the Atlantic Ocean and by the Irish Sea, the latter separating England from Ireland.
Great Britain being an island, its climate is rather mild. Thus the weather, which is greatly influenced by the cool wind that blows from the sea, is cooler in summer and warmer in winter then in most other countries of Northern Europe. There is not a single point in Great Britain which is more then 120 kilometres away from the sea.
2. There are many rivers in Britain, the Thames, the Mersey, the Aire and others but none of them is very long. Many of the rivers are joined by canals, so that it is quite possible to travel by water from one end of England to the other.
3. Great Britain is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, the average density being over 200 people per square kilometre, 80 per cent of the population live in towns. The population of Great Britain is more then 52 mln. England is one of the most powerful capitalist countries in Europe. There are many big industrial cities here, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield and many others.
4. London, its capital, which is situated on the river Thames, is one of the biggest commercial centres of the world .
One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry. Coal, iron and steel as well as various machines are also produced there. Shipbuilding and motor industry are highly developed too.
5. Northern and Western England is a coal, metal and textile industry. The most ancient centres of English iron and steel industry are Birmingham and Sheffield. Iron smelting based on local ore deposits has been practised here since ancient times. In the period of England’s industrialisation Birmingham and Sheffield played the leading role in the creation of England’s heavy industry.
6. Each of the two towns became the centre of various industries. Especially great is the variety of industries of Birmingham. One can find any type of production here, from steel smelting to manufacturing the most delicate articles. Rifles, pistols, various machinery, railway cars, motor cars, electrical equipment, scientific instruments and many other things are produced in Birmingham in great quantities. Alongside with the most modern big plants, a lot of old small enterprises are to be found in this town.
7. Sheffield is the city of steel. It has specialised in producing high-quality steel and articles of steel, heavy armaments, wheels of railway cars, weaving looms, knives, fine instruments, etc.
Задание к тексту.
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
HIGHER EDUCATION IN BRITAIN.
1.The typical academic programme for university students in Great Britain is composed of a varying number of courses or subjects. The academic obligation for each subject fall into three broad types. Lectures, at which attendance is not always compulsory, often outline the general score of the subject matter and stress the particular specialisation of the lecturer. Tutorials, through individual or group discussion, reading extensively, and writing essays under the tutor's direction, ensure focused and in depth understanding of the subject.
2.Examinations on each subject require the students to consolidate his knowledge of the subject, which he has gained through lectures, discussions and a great deal of independent study. These three categories of academic activity-lectures, tutorials and examinations-provide the means by which students prepare themselves in specialised fields of knowledge in British universities.
3.The course of study at a university* lasts three or four years. In general Bachelor's degree, the first academic degree, is given to the students who pass their examination at the end of the course: Bachelor of arts, for history, philosophy, language and literature, etc. Bachelor of Science or Commerce or Music.
4.In 1971 the Open University was set up for the people who do not have time or the qualifications to study at a conventional University. The students of the Open University need to study about ten hours a week, to write essays and to prepare for exams. There are weekly Open University lectures broadcast on ВВС television and radio. The final work is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year. It takes six (or eight) years to get a degree. One who gets a degree may have a better job, higher pay or post-graduate studies. Some universities have extra-mural departments.
5. Besides universities there are 30 polytechnics, numerous colleges for more specialised needs, such as agriculture, accountancy, art and design and law, a few hundred technical colleges providing part-time and full-time education. It is common for" students to leave home to study, and only 15% of all university students live at home while they study.
1.apart from - кроме.
2.part - time education - вечерняя форма обучения.
3.full - time education - дневная форма обучения.
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What forms of academic activities are there?
2. How long does the course of study last?
3. What is the first academic degree?
4. For whom was the Open University set up?
5. What other types of educational establishments are there?
II. Say whether the following statements are true according to the text:
1. Students must attend all lectures.
2. Students gain their knowledge through lectures, discussions and independent study.
3. Тhе course of study at the Open University lasts 6-8 years.
4. Most university students live at home while they study.
III. Задайте вопросы к имеющимся ответам.
1. Tutorials ensure in-depth understanding of the subject.
2. Bachelor's degree is given to the students who pass their examinations.
3. The Open University was set up in 1971.
4. Besides universities there are numerous colleges for more specialised needs.
IV. Закончите предложения:
1. There are weekly Open University lectures...
2. It takes six or eight years...
З. Оnе who gets a degree way have... .
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