25. The style of official documents is the most conservative. It is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants: 1. the language of business documents; 2. the language of legal documents; 3. that of diplomacy; 4. that of military documents. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this style. 1. conventionality of expression; 2. absence of any emotiveness; 3. the encoded character of language; symbols and 4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence. Each of substyles makes use of special terms. Legal documents: military documents, diplomatic documents. The documents use set expressions inherited from early Victorian period. This vocabulary is conservative. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. In diplomatic and legal documents many words have Latin and French origin. There are a lot of abbreviations and conventional symbols. The most noticeable feature of grammar is the compositional pattern. Every document has its own stereotyped form. The form itself is informative and tells you with what kind of letter we deal with. Business letters contain: heading, addressing, salutation, the opening, the body, the closing, complimentary clause, the signature. Syntactical features of business letters are - the predominance of extended simple and complex sentences, wide use of participial constructions, homogeneous members. Morphological peculiarities are passive constructions, they make the letters impersonal.. Its typical feature is to frame equally important factors and to divide them by members in order to avoid ambiguity of the wrong interpretation.
26. Newspaper style is a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. To attract the reader’s attention specific headlines, space ordering, a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, and individuals are used. Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as: a) Brief news items The function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. It has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of special political and economic terms; non-term political vocabulary; newspaper clichй; abbreviations; neologisms. b) The headline. The headline is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns: interrogative sentences; nominative sentences; elliptical sentences; sentences with articles omitted; phrases with verbals; complex sentences; c) Advertisements and announcements. The function is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of them: classified and non-classified (separate). In classified various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name. As for the separate, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out. d) The editorial bears the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style. The function is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring is achieved with the help of various SD (metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
27. The purpose is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the b-l style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. Linguistic features : 1. genuine imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices. 2. the use of words in contextual and in more than one dictionary meaning. 3. a vocabulary which reflects the author’s personal evaluation of things. 4. a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax. 5. the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language. a) Language of poetry. Verse is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances.. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle are held in check by rhythmic patterns. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities. Rhythm and rhyme are distinguishable properties. The most important is the power of the words used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language. b) Emotive prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry; the percentage of words with contextual meanings is not so high as in poetry. It is a combination of the literary variant of the language with the colloquial variant. It is more exact to define it as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language; there are always 2 forms of communication present – monologue and dialogue. Here we find elements of the newspaper style, the official style, the style of scientific prose. c) Language of the drama. The language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded, except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions. Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure and the language of plays is of the type which is meant to be reproduced.
28. The colloquial style is a peculiar subsystem of the English language. On the one hand, its major field of application is found in the spoken variety of language; on the other hand, elements of this style penetrate the written varieties such as the BLS, the PS and NS.
When written, the colloquial style's function is to render the specificity of everyday conversation. Underlying many of its specific features are the following factors: 1) the spontaneous character of communication; 2) the private character of communication; 3) face-to-faceness.
Four tendencies may explain the peculiarities of the colloquial style:
1) prefabrication and 2) creativity, 3)compression and 4) redundancy.
1) The colloquial style has a great amount of ready-made formulae, cliches, all kinds of prefabricated patterns. Spontaneous conversation is facilitated by using stereotyped units – social phrases such as greetings (hello), thanks and responses (not at all...) 2) Creativity is also a result of spontaneous speech production. We make our conversation as we go along. We have no time to polish it deliberately, but one can do corrections, thus there are many hesitations, false starts, loose ends in grammar and syntax. 3) Compression tends to make speech more economical and laconic. It is reflected in the use of the following language phenomena: a)Shortened forms and clipped words (nouns: fridge, lab, math; verbs: am -'m, . is-'s, are-'re, have-'ve, etc.). b)Words of broad semantics (thing, one). c) Ellipsis is usual in face-to-face communication as the situation (context) easily supplies the missing part (Same time, same place?). d) Simplicity of syntax. Long sentences are seldom used in colloquial informal communication, for a simple reason that the speaker doesn't want : lose the thread of his own thought 4) Redundancy reflects another aspect of unprepared speech production. Among the elements reflecting this tendency are: a) time-fillers (you know, I say, let me tee, sort of). b) the pleonastic use of pronouns (John, he is late). c) senseless repetition of words and phrases. (Liza: I'm a good girl, I am.)
The vocabulary of the literary colloquial style comprises neutral, bookish and literary words, though exotic words and colloquialisms are no exception. It is devoid of vulgar, slangy and dialectal lexical units. Sentences are short and elliptical, with clauses connected asyndetically.
29. Morphological stylistics deals with morphological expressive means and stylistic devices. Words of all parts of speech have a great stylistic potential. Being placed in an unusual syntagmatic environment which changes their canonized grammatical characteristics and combinability, they acquire stylistic significance. The central notion of morphological stylistics is the notion of transposition. Transposition is a divergence between the traditional usage of a neutral word and its situational (stylistic) usage. Words of every part of speech are united by their semantic and grammatical properties. General lexico-grammatical meaning of nouns is substantivity, i. e. the ability to denote objects or abstract notions. Due to the diverse nature of substantivity, nouns are divided into proper, common, concrete, abstract, material and collective. Cases of transposition emerge, in particular, when concrete nouns are used according to the rules of proper nouns usage, or vice versa. It results in creation of stylistic devises named antonomasia or personification. Besides general lexico-grammatical meaning, nouns possess grammatical meanings of the category of number and the category of case. Stylistic potential of nouns is significantly reinforced by transpositions in the usage of articles as noun-determiners. Such transpositions occur against generally accepted normative postulates which run: articles are not used with names of persons and animals, some classes of geographical names, abstract nouns and names of material. Uncommon usage of articles aims at importing specific shades of meaning into speech. General lexico-grammatical meaning of adjectives is that of qualitativeness. Qualitative adjectives are always estimative, that is why they are used as epithets (picturesque' view. idiotic shoe-laces, crazy bicycle, tremen-dous achievements) and can form degrees of comparison. Expressive devices may be created by transposition of pronouns. When objective forms of personal pronouns are used predicatively instead of nominative forms, sentences obtain colloquial marking (It is him: It is her: It is me: It is them: It is us,). Transposition of verbs is even more varied than that of nouns. It is explained by a greater number of grammatical categories the meanings of which may be transposed. Most expressive are tense forms, mood forms and voice forms. Deviation from the general (most frequently realized) meaning makes verbs stylistically coloured. Such transposition brightens the narration, raises its emotional tension, expresses intrigue, makes the continuity of events visual and graphic. Transposition is not the only way to make verbs expressive. A good many verbal forms are expressive in themselves. The imperative mood forms are not just commands, invitations, requests or prohibitions. They are a perfect means of rendering an abundance of human emotions. A wide range of subjunctive mood forms offers a good stylistic choice of synonymous ways to verbalize one and the same idea.
30. A style of language can be defined as a system or coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. Each style is a relatively stable system at the given stage in the development of the literary language. Therefore style of language is a historical category. The development of each style is predetermined by the changes in the norms of Standard English. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. Each style, however, can be recognized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. According to Galperin, FS is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. Galperin’s 5 styles include: 1. The Belles - Lettres FS poetry; emotive prose; drama; 2. Publicistic FS: oratory; essays; articles in newspapers and magazines; 3. The Newspaper FS: brief news items; advertisements and announcements; headlines; editorials; 4. The Scientific Prose FS: exact sciences; humanitarian sciences; popular- science prose; 5. The Official Documents FS: diplomatic documents; business letters; military documents; legal documents;
Naer's seven macrostyles embrace: a) official documents; b) scientific, c) professional-technical, d) newspaper, e) publicistic, f) belles-lettres and, g) religious texts.
Kuznets and Skrebnev style hyerarchy: a) the literary refined style - the publicistic, the scientific-technical, the style of official documents; b) the free (colloquial) style - literary colloquial, familiar colloquial.
Arnold's style division: a) neutral style, b) colloquial style: literary, familiar, low, c) bookish style: scientific, official documents, publicistic (newspaper), oratorical, lofty-poetical.
All the mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the international approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation & the official, formal nature of the latter.