|GREAT BRITAIN, Science |
GREAT BRITAIN The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland occupiesterritory of the British Isles which are situated to the north-west ofEurope. They consist of two main islands: Great Britain and Ireland.England is in the south of the island of Great Britain, Scotland is in thenorth and Wales is in the west. Northen Ireland is situated in the noth-eastern part of Ireland. It’s western coast is washed by the Atlanticocean. In the east the island of Great Britain is washed by the North Sea.The Irish Sea, the North Channel and the St. George’s Channel separateIreland from Great Britain. Great Britain is separated from France by theEnglish Channel, which is 32 km wide in it’s narrowest part. In everydayspeech “Great Britain” is used to mean the UK. The climat of Britain is usually described as cool, temperate andhumid. As the weather changes with a wind, and Britain is visited by windsfrom different parts of the world, the most characteristic feature ofBritain’s weather is it’s variability. Summers are not hot and winters arenot cold in Britain. The snow never lies for long on the ground. As a rulethere is no ice on the waters of rivers and lakes. So we may say that theBritish climat has 3 main features: it is mild, humid and changeble. Thatmeans that it’s never too hot or too warm. English is the official, but not the only language used in thecountry. Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conqeredmost part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independenttribes in the West and in the North. Further waves of invaders followed:Angels, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to themixture we call English. For many centuries this country was known simplyas England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial wars.England, once the “work shop of the world”, was the first to become ahighly industrial country. There are no big rivers in Great Britain. The biggest are Severn andThames. There are a lot of mountain in Great Britain, but they are nithigh. The highest mountain - Ben Nevis - is in Scotland. The flora of theBritish Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resourses but therewere suffice for the Industrial Revolution to start. London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans. Thepopulation of London is over 8 million people. The largest cities of Great Britain besides London are: Birmingham,Glasgo, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh. Themost important seaports are: London, Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow andCardiff. Science The word “science” comes from the latin word “scientia”, which means“knowledge”. Scientists make observations and collect facts in field theywork in. Then they arrange facts ordelly and try to express the connactionbetween the facts and try to work out theories. Then they have to prove thefacts or theory correct and make sufficient and sound evidence. Sosientific knowledge is always growing and improving. Science has great influence on our life. It provides with base ofmodern technology, materials, sources of power and so on. Modern scienceand technology have changed our life in many different ways. During thepresent century our life changed greatly. Thanks to radio and television wecan do a great number of jobs; it was radio and TV that made it possible tophotograph the dark side of the moon and to talk with the first cosmonautwhile he was orbiting the Earth. On of the wonders og our age is the“electronic brain”, or giant calculating mashine, which can to some extentduplicste human sences. The desk computer is expected to function as yourpersonal librarian, to carry out simple optimization computations, tocontrol your budget or diet, play several hundred games, etc. furtherdevelopment of the computer is bellieved to lead to a situation in whichmost of the knowledge accepted by mankind will be stored in the computersand made accessible to anyone with the home computers. It is natural thatthe advent of minicomputers with extensive memories and possibilities willlead to a new higher level in information culture. Among other things, weshall be able to organise educational process in the country’s colleges anduniversities and also in the system of school education on a new basic.Knowledge is the most valuable wealth, and minicomputers will help us tomake it accessible for everyone. Agrycultiral sientists develop bettervarietives of plants. The development of antibiotics and other drugs hashelped to control many diseases. Studies in anatomy and physiology have letto amazing surgical operations and the inventions of lifesaving mashines,that can do the work of such organs as heart, lungs and so on. Nuclearfission when a tremendous amount if energy is setting free is veryimportant discovery. Science improved the living standarts, communications, promotedcontact between people and government, knowledge and culture, made itpossible to discover and develop new sources of energy, made it possible toprolong man’s life. But science also has some disadvantages. It produces mass culture:painting, music, literature. Some scientific inventions increase theecological problems, provide with new diseases like AIDS, increased thedanger of violent death. The greatest scientists were very persistent and were sure in theirsuccess. Even without any serious education they made great inventions.Even during times of disappointing experiments and unacknowledgement byother scientists, they didn’t give up and went on working out theories.Also they were always ready to begin everything from the very beginning.They worked a lot, and this work wasn’t for money. The aim, the main object of the greatest scientists of all times wasalways to find out the trith and no personal prejudices can be allowed. Sothe science grows and prospers and is the engine of progress. The problem of learning languages very important today. Foreignlanguages are socially demanded especially at the present time when theprogress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge andhas contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge ofmankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are neededas the main and the most efficient means of information exchange of thepeople of our planet. Today English is the language of the world. Over 300 million peoplespeak it as mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in GreatBritain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. Englishis one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the SouthAfrican Republic. As the second language it is used in the former Britishand US colonies. It is not only the national or the official language of some thirtystates which represents different cultures, but it is also the majorinternational language for communication in such areas as science,technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the officiallanguages of the United Nations Organisation and other politicalorganisations. It is the language of literature, education, modern music,international tourism. Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem oflearning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgenttoday. So far there is no universal or ideal method of learning languages.Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to study grammar or tolearn new words. But it is well known that reading books in the original,listening to BBC news and English speaking singers, visiting an Englishspeaking country, communicating with the English speaking people will helpa lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and historyof the native speakers.