Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor) icon

Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)



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Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)


SCHOOL 1276 WITH PROFOUNDTHOROUGH OF THE ENGLISH LANGUGEOF THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTOF MOSCOW THE ESSAY «THE HOUSE OF TUDOR»SERGEY SANOVICH 10 B 2002 CONTENTS:1.Contents………………………………………………………………….….….……….12.Introduction……………………………………………………………….….…………23.King Henry VII……………………………………………………………...….……2-34.King Henry VIII…………………………………………………………….….……3-45.King Edward VI……………………………………………………………..………4-56.Lady Jane Grey……………………………………………………………...………5-87.Queen Mary I……………………………………………………………...…..……8-118.Queen Elizabeth I………………………………………………………..….....…11-159.Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….……1510.The list of literature………………………………………………….…..…………16 INTRODUCTIONI decided to write this essay, because, I am really interested in Englishhistory. The five sovereigns of the Tudor dynasty are among the most well-known figures in Royal history. Of Welsh origin, Henry VII succeeded inending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York tofound the highly successful Tudor house. He was succeeded by Henry VIII,who is famous for his six wives. This dynasty ruled in Britain for 118eventful years.Henry VIII was followed to the throne by his children Edward VI, Mary I,and Elizabeth I. (Another Tudor descendant, Jane Grey, was put on thethrone after Edward VI's death but was overthrown after only nine days.)They increased the influence of the monarchy, established the Church ofEngland, and made England a world power.When Elizabeth I died in 1603, the Tudor dynasty ended. But the Stuarts,who succeeded the Tudors, were descended from Owen Tudor. Even the modernroyal Windsor family can trace its ancestry back to the handsome Welshsquire who married Queen Catherine of Valois. KING HENRY VIIThe founding of dynastyThe founder of the royal Tudor dynasty was Henry VII's grandfather OwenTudor, a well-born Welsh man who served as a squire of the body toEngland's King Henry V. The king died in 1422 and some years later hiswidow, Catherine of Valois, is said to have married the handsome Tudor,although it is possible they were never legally married.Henry V was succeeded by his infant son, Henry VI. The new king (who becameinsane as an adult) was little more than a pawn in the so-called Wars ofthe Roses, a series of power struggles between the ruling House ofLancaster and the rival House of York. Owen Tudor was a staunch supporterof the king. In 1461 Tudor led an army into battle against Yorkists forcesat Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire. The Yorkist side won; Tudor waskilled; Henry VI lost his throne and the Yorkist claimant, Edward IV,became king.Henry TudorOwen's son Edmund had married Margaret Beaufort, who was descended fromKing Edward III's son John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster. Edmund diedwhile Margaret was pregnant with their first child, Henry, who was born onJanuary 28, 1457 at Pembroke Castle in Wales. At first Henry was kepthidden in Wales by his uncle, Jasper Tudor.
In 1471 Henry VI died - he mayhave been murdered - in the Tower of London, and Henry Tudor became theLancastrian claimant to the throne. Fearing for his nephew's safety, JasperTudor smuggled him to Brittany (in France).In 1483 Edward IV died suddenly and his young sons, Edward V and Richard,"disappeared" in the Tower of London. Their uncle, who had imprisoned theboys, swiftly crowned himself Richard III. Not surprisingly, he was anunpopular king. In 1485 Henry Tudor returned to Wales, raised an army,invaded England, and defeated Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field.Richard died in the battle, and Henry Tudor became Henry VII, the firstTudor king.In 1486 Henry married Richard's niece, Elizabeth of York, uniting thehouses of Lancaster and York and ending the Wars of the Roses (althoughHenry did have to deal with Yorkist uprisings early in his reign).An Elizabethan writer, Sir Francis Bacon, said that Henry VII was not anindulgent husband because "his aversion to the House of York was sopredominant in him as it found place not only in his wars and councils butin his chamber and bed." Despite this supposed aversion, Henry andElizabeth managed to have eight children. The first child, Arthur, died inhis teens. Less than a year later Elizabeth died giving birth to her lastchild, who also died. Two other children had died young, so Henry VII wasleft with just three offspring: Margaret, who was already the queen ofScotland; Henry, the future king of England; and Mary, a future queen ofFrance.In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis. He had brought law and order toEngland after years of chaos, and made the country important in the eyes ofthe world. He is not, however, the Tudor king best remembered today. Thathonour belongs to his infamous successor, the much-married Henry VIII. KING HENRY VIIIHenry VIII was born on June 28, 1491. His father and mother, Henry VII andElizabeth of York, were loving parents, although they saw little of theirchildren. Henry, their second son, was styled the Duke of York. He had hisown servants and minstrels, and a fool named John Goose. He even had awhipping boy who was punished when Henry did something wrong.Henry VII loved entertainers, and the court attracted acrobats, jesters,magicians and musicians. Prince Henry enjoyed music and grew up to be anaccomplished musician (although he did not write "Greensleeves," as legendsuggests). At the age of 10 he could play many instruments, including thefife, harp, viola and drums.Henry's older brother Arthur married a Spanish princess, Catherine ofAragon, when he was fifteen. Prince Arthur danced at his wedding and seemedto be in good health, but within a few months he was dead. Some historiansthink Arthur had tuberculosis.Young Henry was now heir to the throne. He was guarded at all times andallowed to see few people. Henry was a very tall, athletic, handsometeenager. He kept his exuberant personality under control on publicoccasions because he feared his father's temper. He received littletraining for his future role as king, and would rely heavily on hiscounsellors in the early years of his reign.In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis and his son became King Henry VIII.He was 17.Although most people today think of Henry VIII as a fat tyrant, in hisyouth he was admired for his intelligence, good looks, good nature andathletic ability. One of his contemporaries wrote that he was "one of thebest men that lived in his time, in manners more than a man, most amiable,courteous and benign in gesture unto all persons."But of course, Henry is remembered today for just one thing - well, sixthings. Six wives, to be exact. He was married to Catherine of Aragon, AnneBoleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard, and Katherine Parr. EDWARD VIThe King’s sonEdward VI was born on October 12, 1537. His parents were England's KingHenry VIII and Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife. For more than a quartercentury Henry had desperately wanted a son, and Edward's birth caused greatrejoicing. But Queen Jane soon fell ill with childbed fever, and on October24 she died.Until the age of six Edward was raised by his nurse, Mother Jack, and otherservants. During that time Henry took two wives in quick succession, butboth marriages ended badly; Anne of Cleves was discarded because the kingfound her ugly, and Katherine Howard was executed for adultery. In 1543Henry married Katherine Parr, who became a loving stepmother to Edward andhis older half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. She was a highly learned womanwho personally oversaw Prince Edward's education.Edward's tutors taught him geography, government, history, French, German,Greek, and Latin. He was also given lessons in etiquette, fencing,horseback riding, music and other gentlemanly pursuits. Perhaps mostimportant to Edward was his study of the Scriptures. He became a devoutProtestant even though his father, who had severed England's connection tothe Roman Catholic Church, remained conservative and mostly Catholic in hisbeliefs.Although Edward was serious and studious, at times he displayed a savagetemper. According to one account, he once tore a living falcon into fourpieces.The Boy KingSomerset's brother, Lord High Admiral Thomas Seymour, was jealous ofSomerset and schemed to put himself in power. The admiral was arrested andcharged with treason. Somerset hesitated to sign his brother's deathwarrant, so Edward gave the council permission to have his uncle beheaded.Somerset himself later fell from the king's favour and lost his role asProtector. The duke of Northumberland took control of the king and council,and eventually Somerset, like his brother, was arrested and charged withtreason. Under pressure from Northumberland, fourteen-year-old Edwardsigned Somerset's death warrant. Somerset was executed in 1552.By this time Edward had completed his education and was participating incouncil meetings. It was decided that the king would take charge of thecountry at age sixteen. This was bad news for his sister Mary an ardentCatholic who refused to cooperate with Edward's religious reforms. However,Edward got along well with his other sister, Elizabeth, a moderateProtestant.Edward suffered bouts of measles and smallpox in April 1552, and from thattime his health declined. By the next spring it was obvious that the kingwas dying of consumption (tuberculosis). His father's will had specifiedthat Mary should become queen if Edward died without children, butNorthumberland had different ideas. He persuaded Edward to name theProtestant Lady Jane Grey as his successor. Lady Jane was the granddaughterof Henry VIII's sister Mary; she was also Northumberland's daughter-in-law,and through her Northumberland hoped to rule England.On July 6, 1553 Edward whispered his last prayer and died. He was fifteenyears old. He would be succeeded -- briefly -- by the unfortunate LadyJane. JANE GREYThe unhappy childhoodLady Jane Grey was born in 1537, just two days before King Edward VI, andmay have been his friend in childhood. Her father was Henry Grey, themarquis of Dorset (later the duke of Suffolk). Her mother was FrancesBrandon, a niece of Henry VIII. At that time, Frances Brandon was third inthe line of succession to the throne. Jane had two younger sisters,Katherine and Mary.Jane's parents were, in her words, "sharp and severe" to her. She once tolda visitor to her family home, Bradgate Manor, that her mother and fatherexpected to do everything "as perfectly as God made the world, or else I amsharply taunted, so cruelly threatened . . . that I think myself in hell."She said that her parents pinched her and abused her in other ways shewould not name out of respect for them.She found refuge in her studies, which she enjoyed so much that she criedwhen her lessons were over for the day. "Whatsoever I do else, butlearning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, and whole misliking," she said.Jane's parents had big dreams for their intellectual eldest daughter. Theyhoped she would marry her cousin Edward and thus become queen of England.When Jane was nine, her parents sent her to live with Henry VIII's widow,Katherine Parr, and Katherine's new husband, Thomas Seymour. Jane was happywith the Seymours, but Katherine soon died and Thomas Seymour was arrested,forcing Jane to return to her parents.Once, on a visit to Henry VIII's daughter Mary, Jane openly disparagedMary's Catholic beliefs. Although Mary was hurt, she later sent Jane apretty velvet dress to wear to court. Jane, who thought fine clothes weresinful, tried to refuse the gift, saying it would be "a shame to follow myLady Mary against God's word," but her parents insisted she wear it in thehope that it would impress the king. Many people expected Edward to marryJane, but he wanted to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, or some other foreignprincess.By the time Jane was 15, her parents had abandoned their dream of marryingher to King Edward. Jane now believed that she was betrothed to the duke ofSomerset's son, Lord Hertford. She was stunned when her parents informedher that she was instead to marry Guildford Dudley, the youngest son of theduke of Northumberland. Guildford was a handsome young man, one year Jane'ssenior, but it seems Jane didn't like him very much. She refused to marryhim, and went on refusing until her mother literally beat her intosubmission.The unwanted CrownJane married Guildford Dudley in May of 1553. The marriage was consummatedthe following month at Northumberland's command, but the couple continuedto live apart. Jane's new mother-in-law visited her on July 3 and told her,"His Majesty hath made you heir to his realm." Jane said later that thisunexpected news "greatly disturbed" her.Three days later the king died. Northumberland kept the death secret forseveral days to prevent Edward's sister Mary from claiming the crown. Buton July 9 Mary, who was in Norfolk, heard the news and proclaimed herselfqueen. On the same day Jane was taken to Northumberland's house and led toa throne. Everyone bowed or curtsied to her. Realizing what was happening,Jane began to shake. Northumberland made a speech announcing that Jane wasthe new queen, at which Jane fell on the floor in a brief faint. No onecame to her assistance and she remained on the floor, sobbing.Finally she got to her feet and announced, "The crown is not my right, andpleaseth me not. The Lady Mary is the rightful heir."When her parents, husband, and father-in-law remonstrated with her, Janedropped to her knees and prayed for guidance. She asked God to give her"such spirit and grace that I may govern to Thy glory and service, and tothe advantage of the realm." Then she took her seat on the throne andallowed those present to kiss her hand and swear their allegiance to her.The next day Jane made her state entry into London. Most people felt thatMary was the rightful heir to the throne, and very few cheers greeted Jane.She was taken to the Tower of London, as was traditional. She protestedwhen the Lord High Treasurer brought her the crown, but after a while sheagreed to wear it. When the treasurer said that another crown would be madefor her husband, Jane was displeased. Despite Guildford's rage and tears,she insisted that she would not permit him to be king.For a few days Northumberland stayed close to Jane, bringing her documentsto sign and generally telling her what to do. Despite Jane's objection tomaking Guildford king, Northumberland announced that both she and herhusband would be crowned in two weeks. Then Northumberland left with anarmy to capture Mary, who was marching toward London with an army of herown. While he was gone the nervous royal council decided to proclaim Marythe rightful queen. The proclamation was made on July 19. The people ofLondon were jubilant. Determined to save himself, Jane's father signed theproclamation making Mary queen, then went to his daughter's apartments andtore down her canopy of estate, telling her she was no longer queen."Out of obedience to you and my mother I have grievously sinned," Jane saidquietly. "Now I willingly relinquish the crown. May I not go home? "Herfather left without answering her.The bitterness of deathJane remained in the Tower, where she and Guildford soon became prisoners.Her father and Northumberland were also arrested and brought back to thetower. Henry Grey was released after a few days. He and Frances did notwrite to Jane or try to save her life. Although Northumberland hastilyconverted to Catholicism and spoke of his desire to live and kiss Mary'sfeet, he was executed in August.On November 13 Jane and Guildford were tried and sentenced to death. Janewasn't worried, however, because she had been told that the queen wouldpardon her. Then, in February of 1554, Sir Thomas Wyatt raised a revoltagainst Mary. He was quickly arrested, but his rebellion hardened Mary'sheart against her enemies. She signed Jane and Guildford's death warrants.When Jane heard the news she said, "I am ready and glad to end my woefuldays." The queen offered to reprieve Jane if she would convert to theCatholic faith, but Jane refused.Jane's father had supported the rebels, and he too was sentenced to death.Now he wrote to Jane and asked for her forgiveness. She wrote back,"Although it hath pleased God to hasten my death by you, by whom my lifeshould rather have been lengthened, yet can I patiently take it, that Iyield God more hearty thanks for shortening my woeful days."Queen Mary granted Guildford permission to meet with Jane one last time,but Jane refused to see her husband, saying that they would meet in abetter place, where friendships were happy.On February 11 Jane watched from a window as her husband walked to TowerHill to be executed; later she saw his headless body being brought back tothe Tower, at which she cried, "Oh Guildford! Guildford! Oh, the bitternessof death!"About an hour later, Jane too made the walk to Tower Hill. On the scaffoldshe knelt and recited the 51st Psalm, then blindfolded herself and askedthe executioner to kill her quickly. Unable to find the block, sheexclaimed, "What shall I do? Where is it?" аbystander helped her to theblock. She put her head on it and said, "Lord, into Thy hands I commend myspirit." The executioner killer her with one blow and held up her head,saying, "So perish all the queen's enemies! Behold the head of a traitor!" MARY IFrom Princess to bastard"Bloody Mary" Tudor was born on February 18, 1516. She was the onlysurviving child of King Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henrydoted on Princess Mary when she was little, calling her "the greatest pearlin the kingdom." The princess received an excellent education, and wascarefully sheltered.In 1522 Henry arranged Mary's betrothal to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.Charles was an adult, and Mary was just six years old; the marriage wouldtake place when she was twelve. Mary had met Charles and liked the idea ofmarrying him. But in 1525 Charles broke off the engagement so that he couldmarry Princess Isabella of Portugal. That same year Henry sent PrincessMary to live in Wales, as was traditional for the king's heir.The year 1527 started off well for Princess Mary. She returned to live ather father's court and celebrated her engagement to a son of the king ofFrance. But Henry VIII's attitude toward Mary and her mother had started tochange. He had decided that God disapproved of his marriage to Catherine;why else had the queen failed to produce healthy male children? And he wasin love with the woman who was to become his second wife: Anne Boleyn.Soon Mary learned that Henry wanted to annul his marriage to her mother.For this, the king needed the pope's permission. While he waited, hecontinued to treat Catherine as his queen and Mary as his heir. But Mary'slegitimacy was now in doubt, making her less valuable on the marriagemarket. The French engagement was broken off and no other match wasarranged for her, although her father's advisors considered marrying her toKing Henry's illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy. (Fitzroy married someoneelse. He died young and without heirs.)Henry grew increasingly angry with Catherine for resisting his attempt toend their marriage. Finally, in 1531, he sent Catherine away from court.After being shuffled between various castles and palaces, the queen endedup a prisoner at Kimbolton Castle, near Huntingdon. Realizing that the popewould never grant his divorce, Henry split from the Catholic church,established the Church of England, had his marriage declared invalid, andmarried Anne Boleyn. Anne gave birth to a daughter, Princess Elizabeth, in1533.Mary was now officially a bastard, called "the lady Mary," but, like hermother, she refused to accept her change in status. Henry was infuriated byhis daughter's defiance and threatened to have her executed if she did notstop referring to herself as a princess. When Mary was eighteen, herhousehold was disbanded and she was sent to live in Princess Elizabeth'shousehold, where she was treated badly. Henry refused to see her, but hewas not completely indifferent to Mary. Once, glimpsing her at a window, henodded and touched his hat politely.Catherine and Mary were not permitted to visit each other, and Catherinedied in 1536 without seeing her daughter again. Now Mary was alone. Fourmonths after Catherine's death, however, Mary's greatest enemy toppled frompower when Anne Boleyn was arrested on false charges of adultery andexecuted. Anne had hated Mary and stated that she wanted her dead. WithAnne gone, Henry treated his eldest daughter somewhat more kindly. Histhird, fourth, and sixth wives were all well-disposed toward Mary. (She gotalong less well with his teenaged fifth wife, Katherine Howard.) Althoughshe never regained her former status or her father's affection, she wasonce again part of the royal family.At first she got along well with the king's other children. As Elizabethand Edward grew up, however, up their Protestant views put them at oddswith Mary, who never swayed from her devout Catholicism. After Henry'sdeath in 1547, Mary's nine-year-old half-brother became King Edward VI. Asking, Edward scolded and bullied Mary about her beliefs. On his deathbed hedisinherited her in favor of their teenaged cousin Lady Jane Grey.Lady Jane Grey did not want to be queen, but that didn't stop her fatherand his supporters from trying to seize the throne for her after KingEdward's death in 1553. Few people supported "Queen Jane," however. In theend even Jane's ambitious father abandoned her, and Mary was proclaimedqueen. After a lifetime of sorrow and danger, the 37-year-old Mary Tudorwas now the most powerful person in England.The unhappy QueenSoon after her accession, Mary began considering the possibility ofmarrying Prince Philip of Spain, the son of her former fiancй, EmperorCharles V. It worried her that Philip was 11 years her junior because hewas "likely to be disposed to be amorous, and such is not my desire, not atmy time of life, and never having harbored thoughts of love." Withdifficulty the emperor's envoy convinced her that Philip was a stable,mature adult who would help protect her kingdom.Mary's subjects were alarmed to learn of her engagement to the Spanishprince, fearing that England would become part of Spain. The queen,however, had no intention of turning the country over to Philip. He arrivedin England on July 20, 1554, and met Mary for the first time on July 23.Mary liked Philip from the start, and he treated her kindly, although heprobably found her unattractive. (The men who had accompanied him toEngland later described Mary as old, badly dressed, and almost toothless.)The wedding took place two days later. Two months later, Mary's doctorstold her that she was pregnant.In December a law was passed that allowed bishops of the Church of Englandto convict heretics and sentence them to death by burning. Almost 300people were burned alive during Mary's reign with Mary's full approval,earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary."By the summer of 1555 it became obvious that Mary was no longer pregnant,if she had ever been. Mary was bitterly disappointed. Philip left Englandthat August, promising Mary that he would soon return. Mary missed himdesperately. Philip didn't return to England until March of 1557. Duringhis absence he had become the king of Spain. After a few months in Englandhe left to go to war; Mary never saw him again. She became depressed andparanoid. Tortured by loneliness and unhappiness, Queen Mary fell ill. Shedied on November 17, 1558 and was succeeded by her half-sister, QueenElizabeth I. ELISABETH IThe unwanted PrincessElizabeth I was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace near London.Her father was England's King Henry VIII; her mother was the king's secondwife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth had an older half-sister, Mary, who was thedaughter of the king's first wife, Catherine of Aragon.King Henry had moved heaven and earth to marry Anne Boleyn. He had partedfrom the Catholic Church, established the Church of England, and annulledhis twenty-four year marriage to Queen Catherine - partly because he lovedAnne, and partly because he wanted the male heir Catherine could not givehim. Henry and Anne were convinced that their first child would be a boy.The new queen even had a document drawn up ahead of time that announced thebirth of a prince. When the prince turned out to be a princess, her parentswere dismayed.Over the next few years Anne had three miscarriages, and Henry - who hadbecome disenchanted with her even before Elizabeth's birth - decided to berid of her. In 1536 he had Anne arrested on false charges of adultery. TheArchbishop of Canterbury bowed to the king's will by declaring that Henry'smarriage to Anne had never been valid. Like her half-sister Mary, two-year-old Elizabeth was now considered illegitimate. Anne was executed, and twoweeks later the king married Jane Seymour.In 1537 Queen Jane died after giving birth to a son, Edward. Elizabeth andMary participated in his christening ceremony. As Edward grew older, he andElizabeth became close; although they lived in separate households, theywrote to each other often.When Elizabeth was four, Katherine Champernowne became her governess. Thewell-educated Champernowne - known as Kat Ashley after her marriage in 1545- began teaching Elizabeth astronomy, geography, history, math, French,Flemish, Italian, Spanish, and other subjects. Elizabeth was an excellentstudent. Her tutor Roger Ascham later wrote, "She talks French and Italianas well as she does English. When she writes Greek and Latin, nothing ismore beautiful than her handwriting."In 1540 Elizabeth's father married Anne of Cleves. Repelled by what heperceived as his bride's ugliness, Henry quickly had the marriage annulledand instead married Anne Boleyn's first cousin Katherine Howard. Katherinewas very young - about fifteen - and something of a featherbrain, but shewas kind to Elizabeth, who was surely appalled when, in a repetition of thepast, the queen was arrested and charged with adultery. This time thecharges were true. Queen Katherine was beheaded in 1542, when Elizabeth wasseven years old.Katherine Howard's violent death seems to have had a lasting impact onElizabeth. At the age of eight she met one of Prince Edward's classmates,Robert Dudley, and told him of an important decision she had made. "I willnever marry," she said. It was a decision that would shape her life.Thomas SeymourIn 1543 Elizabeth gained yet another stepmother when Henry married hissixth and final wife, Katherine Parr. Four years later Henry VIII died,leaving his crown to Edward. According to Henry's will, if Edward diedwithout heirs he would be succeeded by Mary. If Mary died without heirs,Elizabeth would become queen.Soon after Henry's death, Elizabeth received a marriage proposal fromhandsome Thomas Seymour, who was England's Lord Admiral and the brother ofthe late Queen Jane. Knowing that Seymour was simply seeking the power thatmarriage to the king's sister could bring him, Elizabeth turned him down.So Seymour proposed to the widowed Queen Katherine, who had been in lovewith him before her marriage to Henry VIII. Unaware of Seymour's previousproposal to her stepdaughter, Katherine happily accepted. They were quicklymarried, and the following year Elizabeth went to live with them at theroyal Old Manor House in Chelsea.Thomas Seymour still had designs on pretty red-haired Elizabeth. He took tovisiting her bedroom in the morning before she was dressed. During thesevisits he sometimes tickled her or slapped her bottom; once he tried tokiss her. Elizabeth giggled and seemed to enjoy his attention, but KatAshley was disturbed by the Lord Admiral's behaviour, and the servantsbegan to gossip. Queen Katherine was aware of what was going on, but saw itall as innocent romping. Once she even joined in the "joke," holdingElizabeth in the garden while her husband cut off Elizabeth's dress.Hoping to further deceive his wife, Seymour told her that he had seenElizabeth with her arms around a man's neck. Concerned, the queenquestioned Elizabeth, who cried and insisted it wasn't true. Now Katherinebegan to suspect that her husband, not some mystery man, had been makingadvances to her stepdaughter. She started watching the Lord Admiral morecarefully. One day Katherine went looking for him and Elizabeth and,according to one account, "came suddenly upon them, where they were allalone, he having her in his arms." Understandably upset, Katherine banishedElizabeth from the Old Manor House.аfew months later Katherine died after childbirth and Seymour resumedplotting to marry Elizabeth. Elizabeth knew that she could not legallymarry without the permission of the king's council, and she refused to bedrawn into the Lord Admiral's schemes. In 1549 Seymour was arrested oncharges of conspiring to marry Elizabeth and take over the government. KatAshley was also arrested, along with another of Elizabeth's employees, andElizabeth herself was closely interrogated. She kept her wits about her anddenied any involvement in Seymour's treasonous activities. In the end sheconvinced the Council of her innocence, and her servants were released fromprison.When Elizabeth heard that Seymour had been beheaded for his crimes shesupposedly said only, "This day died a man of much wit and very littlejudgement." She had learned that she must keep her feelings to herself ifshe hoped to survive.Perilous yearsElizabeth continued to get along well with her brother, King Edward, but in1553 Edward died. On his deathbed he was persuaded by the duke ofNorthumberland to name Lady Jane Grey to succeed him. Lady Jane tried torefuse the crown, but Northumberland (who was her father-in-law) proclaimedher to be the new queen. Meanwhile, Henry VIII's daughter Mary wasproclaimed queen by her supporters. Northumberland surrendered to Mary'sforces. He and Jane Grey were imprisoned and later executed.Queen Mary was determined to restore Catholicism as the country's officialreligion. She pressured Elizabeth to convert. Elizabeth obediently attendedone Mass, but complained the whole time of feeling ill. Because this andElizabeth's popularity with the English people, Mary grew wary of her halfsister.When Sir Thomas Wyatt led an uprising against Mary, the queen suspectedthat Elizabeth was involved. Elizabeth was taken to London and confined atWhitehall Palace. Eventually, although no evidence against her could befound, she was sent to the Tower, where Anne Boleyn, Katherine Howard, JaneGrey and so many others had awaited execution. When Elizabeth saw that shewas being brought into the Tower via the Traitor's Gate, she panicked andbegged to be brought through some other gate.Told that she must enter this way, she cried, "Oh Lord, I never throught tocome in here as a prisoner . . . I come in as no traitor but as true awoman to the Queen's Majesty as any as is now living; and thereon will Itake my death." She sat down on the stairs and refused to move. When toldthat it wasn't healthy to sit in the rain, she replied tearfully, "It isbetter sitting here than in a worse place!"One of her servants started to sob and Elizabeth told him angrily that heshouldn't cry, saying, "I thank God that I know my truth to be such that noman can have cause to weep for me!" With that she continued into the Tower.Despite her very reasonable fears, she was released from the Tower twomonths later, on the eighteenth anniversary of her mother's death. Sheremained a prisoner, however. In 1555 she was moved under heavy guard toHampton Court, where the queen was staying. Mary refused to see her, butMary's new husband Philip of Spain met with Elizabeth and fell under herspell. At his encouragement Mary finally reconciled with Elizabeth.Over 250 Protestants were burned at the stake during the reign of "BloodyMary," and Elizabeth's failure to truly convert to the Catholic faith puther in constant danger, as did other people's conspiracies to overthrowMary and place Elizabeth on the throne.Finally, on November 17, 1558, Mary died and Elizabeth's years of perilcame to an end. She was now the queen of England.GlorianaElizabeth's advisors urged the twenty-five-year old queen to quickly marrysome foreign prince and produce heirs so that the throne would not pass toHenry VIII's great-niece, Mary Stuart, the queen of Scotland. Elizabethstood by her early decision never to marry. (One of the many proposals sherejected was from Mary's widower, Philip of Spain.)Elizabeth had a romantic nature, and may already have been in love herchildhood friend, Robert Dudley, whom she later made the Earl of Leicester.Although Elizabeth was a hard-working monarch, like her father she had agreat appetite for entertainment. She enjoyed archery, dancing, hunting,riding, and tennis. Whatever she did, Leicester was usually nearby. He wasgiven a bedroom near hers, and rumours about the nature of theirrelationship were rampant.Leicester had a wife named Amy. In 1559, while Leicester was at court, Amyfell down the staircase of her country home, broke her neck, and died. Shehad been alone in the house at the time of her accident, and it waswhispered that she had been murdered so that Elizabeth and Leicester couldmarry. But Elizabeth did not marry Leicester. Twenty years later heinfuriated the queen by secretly marrying her cousin Lettice Knollys, butElizabeth forgave him, and he remained her favourite until his death.Elizabeth was glorified by poets and artists as Gloriana, the Virgin Queen.With the help of fine clothes, jewels and cosmetics, the vain queenmaintained a glamorous image despite her advancing age. In her mid-fiftiesshe fell in love with Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, son of LetticeKnollys. Essex was in his early twenties, good-looking, and extremelyarrogant. Although he reigned as the queen's favourite for many years, hedid not always show Elizabeth the deference she demanded. Once, whenElizabeth slapped him during an argument, Essex threatened to draw hissword on her. Elizabeth sent him to Ireland to quell a rebellion; whilethere, Essex ignored the queen's orders and pursued his own agenda. When hedefied her by returning to England without permission, Elizabeth placed himunder house arrest. After his release Essex attempted to lead an uprisingagainst the queen, and the heartbroken Elizabeth had no choice but tosentence him to death. Essex was executed in 1601.Two years later Elizabeth became very ill. Perhaps she did not want to livewithout Essex; when her doctors offered her medicine, she refused to takeit. She died on March 24, 1603 at the age of 69. CONCLUSIONDuring this period from 1485 to 1603, England developed into one of theleading European colonial powers, with men such as Sir Walter Raleightaking part in the conquest of the New World. Nearer to home, campaigns inIreland brought the country under strict English control. Culturally andsocially, the Tudor period saw many changes. The Tudor court played aprominent part in the cultural Renaissance taking place in Europe,nurturing all-round individuals such as William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenserand Cardinal Wolsey. The Tudor period also saw the turbulence of twochanges of official religion, resulting in the martyrdom of many innocentbelievers of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. The fear of RomanCatholicism induced by the Reformation was to last for several centuriesand to play an influential role in the history of the Succession. THE LIST OF LITERATURE:1. I. I. Burova. The Monarchs of England. «Норинт». Москва. 1997.2. Джордж Маколей Тревельян. История Англии: от Чосера до крорлевы Виктории. «Русич». Смоленск. 2001.3. Официальный сайт Букингемского дворца: www.royal.gov.uk.4. Сайт, посвященный истрии королевских династий мира: www.royalty.nu. EXTRACT «The house of Tudor»INTRODUCTION. I decided to write this essay, because, I am reallyinterested in English history. The five sovereigns of the Tudor dynasty areamong the most well-known figures in Royal history. Of Welsh origin, HenryVII succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses ofLancaster and York to found the highly successful Tudor house. He wassucceeded by Henry VIII, who is famous for his six wives. This dynastyruled in Britain for 118 eventful years. Henry VIII was followed to thethrone by his children Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I. (Another Tudordescendant, Jane Grey, was put on the throne after Edward VI's death butwas overthrown after only nine days.) They increased the influence of themonarchy, established the Church of England, and made England a worldpower. When Elizabeth I died in 1603, the Tudor dynasty ended. But theStuarts, who succeeded the Tudors, were descended from Owen Tudor. Even themodern royal Windsor family can trace its ancestry back to the handsomeWelsh squire who married Queen Catherine of Valois.KING HENRY VII. 1). The house of Tudor was founded by Owen Tudor, a well-born Welsh man who served as a squire of the body to England's King HenryV. The king died in 1422 and some years later his widow, Catherine ofValois, is said to have married the handsome Tudor. The middle of the XVcentury- the time of so-called Wars of the Roses, a series of powerstruggles between the ruling House of Lancaster and the rival House ofYork. Owen Tudor was a staunch supporter of the king. In 1461 Tudor led anarmy into battle against Yorkists forces at Mortimer's Cross inHerefordshire. The Yorkist side won; Tudor was killed; Henry VI lost histhrone and the Yorkist claimant, Edward IV, became king. Owen's son Edmundhad married Margaret Beaufort, who was descended from King Edward III's sonJohn of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster. Edmund died while Margaret waspregnant with their first child, Henry, who was born on January 28, 1457 inWales. At first Henry was kept hidden in Wales by his uncle, Jasper Tudor.In 1471 Henry VI died - he may have been murdered - in the Tower of London,and Henry Tudor became the Lancastrian claimant to the throne. Fearing forhis nephew's safety, Jasper Tudor smuggled him to Brittany (in France).In1483 Edward IV died suddenly and his young sons, Edward V and Richard,"disappeared" in the Tower of London. Their uncle, who had imprisoned theboys, swiftly crowned himself Richard III. Not surprisingly, he was anunpopular king. In 1485 Henry Tudor returned to Wales, raised an army,invaded England, and defeated Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field.Richard died in the battle, and Henry Tudor became Henry VII, the firstTudor king. 2). In 1486 Henry married Richard's niece, Elizabeth of York,uniting the houses of Lancaster and York and ending the Wars of the Roses(although Henry did have to deal with Yorkist uprisings early in hisreign). Henry VII was left with just three offspring: Margaret, who wasalready the queen of Scotland; Henry, the future king of England; and Mary,a future queen of France. In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis. He hadbrought law and order to England after years of chaos, and made the countryimportant in the eyes of the world.KING HENRY VIII. 1). Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491. His father andmother, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, were loving parents, although theysaw little of their children. Henry, their second son, was styled the Dukeof York. He had his own servants and minstrels, and a fool named JohnGoose. He even had a whipping boy who was punished when Henry did somethingwrong. Henry VII loved entertainers, and the court attracted acrobats,jesters, magicians and musicians. Prince Henry enjoyed music and grew up tobe an accomplished musician. 2). He became a king, when he was 17 yearsold. Although most people today think of Henry VIII as a fat tyrant, in hisyouth he was admired for his intelligence, good looks, good nature andathletic ability. One of his contemporaries wrote that he was "one of thebest men that lived in his time, in manners more than a man, most amiable,courteous and benign in gesture unto all persons. "But of course, Henry isremembered today for just one thing - well, six things. Six wives, to beexact. He was married to Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour,Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard, and Katherine Parr.KING EDWARD VI. 1). Henry VIII died in 1547 and his nine-year-old sonbecame King Edward VI. аcouncil was appointed to rule during Edward'sminority, with Edward's uncle, the duke of Somerset (Jane Seymour'sbrother), as Protector of the country and the king. Somerset's brother,Lord High Admiral Thomas Seymour, was jealous of Somerset and schemed toput himself in power. Somerset himself later fell from the king's favourand lost his role as Protector. The duke of Northumberland took control ofthe king and council, and eventually Somerset, like his brother, wasarrested and charged with treason. Under pressure from Northumberland,fourteen-year-old Edward signed Somerset's death warrant. Somerset wasexecuted in 1552. 2). By this time Edward had completed his education andwas participating in council meetings. It was decided that the king wouldtake charge of the country at age sixteen. This was bad news for his sisterMary an ardent Catholic who refused to cooperate with Edward's religiousreforms. However, Edward got along well with his other sister, Elizabeth, amoderate Protestant. Edward suffered bouts of measles and smallpox in April1552, and from that time his health declined. His father's will hadspecified that Mary should become queen if Edward died without children,but Northumberland had different ideas. He persuaded Edward to name theProtestant Lady Jane Grey as his successor. Lady Jane was the granddaughterof Henry VIII's sister Mary; she was also Northumberland's daughter-in-law,and through her Northumberland hoped to rule England. On July 6, 1553Edward died. He was fifteen years old. He would be succeeded -- briefly --by the unfortunate Lady Jane.LADY JANE GREY. 1). Lady Jane Grey was born in 1537, just two days beforeKing Edward VI, and may have been his friend in childhood. Her father wasHenry Grey, the marquis of Dorset (later the duke of Suffolk). Her motherwas Frances Brandon, a niece of Henry VIII. At that time, Frances Brandonwas third in the line of succession to the throne. Jane had two youngersisters, Katherine and Mary. Jane's parents were, in her words, "sharp andsevere" to her. She found refuge in her studies. Jane's parents had bigdreams for their intellectual eldest daughter. They hoped she would marryher cousin Edward and thus become queen of England. When Jane was nine, herparents sent her to live with Henry VIII's widow, Katherine Parr, andKatherine's new husband, Thomas Seymour. Jane was happy with the Seymours,but Katherine soon died and Thomas Seymour was arrested, forcing Jane toreturn to her parents. By the time Jane was 15, her parents had abandonedtheir dream of marrying her to King Edward, but he wanted to marry Mary,Queen of Scots, or some other foreign princess. Jane wanted to marry to theduke of Somerset's son, Lord Hertford. She was stunned when her parentsinformed her that she was instead to marry Guildford Dudley, the youngestson of the duke of Northumberland. Guildford was a handsome young man, oneyear Jane's senior, but it seems Jane didn't like him very much. 2). Janemarried Guildford Dudley in May of 1553. Three days later the king died.Northumberland kept the death secret for several days to prevent Edward'ssister Mary from claiming the crown. But on July 9 Mary, who was inNorfolk, heard the news and proclaimed herself queen. On the same day Janewas taken to Northumberland's house and led to a throne. Everyone bowed orcurtsied to her. Realizing what was happening, Jane began to shake.Northumberland made a speech announcing that Jane was the new queen, atwhich Jane fell on the floor in a brief faint. The next day Jane made herstate entry into London. Most people felt that Mary was the rightful heirto the throne, and very few cheers greeted Jane. She was taken to the Towerof London, as was traditional. For a few days Northumberland stayed closeto Jane, bringing her documents to sign and generally telling her what todo. Despite Jane's objection to making Guildford king, Northumberlandannounced that both she and her husband would be crowned in two weeks. ThenNorthumberland left with an army to capture Mary, who was marching towardLondon with an army of her own. While he was gone the nervous royal councildecided to proclaim Mary the rightful queen. The proclamation was made onJuly 19. The people of London were jubilant. Determined to save himself,Jane's father signed the proclamation making Mary queen, then went to hisdaughter's apartments and tore down her canopy of estate, telling her shewas no longer queen. 3). Jane remained in the Tower, where she andGuildford soon became prisoners. Her father and Northumberland were alsoarrested and brought back to the tower. Henry Grey was released after a fewdays. He and Frances did not write to Jane or try to save her life.Although Northumberland hastily converted to Catholicism and spoke of hisdesire to live and kiss Mary's feet, he was executed in August. On November13 Jane and Guildford were tried and sentenced to death. Jane wasn'tworried, however, because she had been told that the queen would pardonher. Then, in February of 1554, Sir Thomas Wyatt raised a revolt againstMary. He was quickly arrested, but his rebellion hardened Mary's heartagainst her enemies. She signed Jane and Guildford's death warrants. WhenJane heard the news she said, "I am ready and glad to end my woeful days."The queen offered to reprieve Jane if she would convert to the Catholicfaith, but Jane refused. Jane's father had supported the rebels, and he toowas sentenced to death. They were executed on February, 11.QUEEN MARY I. 1). Bloody Mary" Tudor was born on February 18, 1516. She wasthe only surviving child of King Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine ofAragon. Henry doted on Princess Mary when she was little, she received anexcellent education. The year 1527 started off well for Princess Mary. ButHenry VIII's attitude toward Mary and her mother had started to change. Hehad decided that God disapproved of his marriage to Catherine; why else hadthe queen failed to produce healthy male children? And he was in love withthe woman who was to become his second wife: Anne Boleyn. Soon Mary learnedthat Henry wanted to annul his marriage to her mother. For this, the kingneeded the pope's permission. Henry grew increasingly angry with Catherinefor resisting his attempt to end their marriage. Finally, in 1531, he sentCatherine away from court. After being shuffled between various castles andpalaces, the queen ended up a prisoner at Kimbolton Castle, nearHuntingdon. Mary was now officially a bastard, called "the lady Mary," but,like her mother, she refused to accept her change in status. Henry wasinfuriated by his daughter's defiance and threatened to have her executedif she did not stop referring to herself as a princess. Catherine and Marywere not permitted to visit each other, and Catherine died in 1536 withoutseeing her daughter again. Now Mary was alone. . With Anne gone, Henrytreated his eldest daughter somewhat more kindly. At first she got alongwell with the king's other children. After Henry's death in 1547, Mary'snine-year-old half-brother became King Edward VI, then for 9 days(Lady JaneGrey. After a lifetime of sorrow and danger, the 37-year-old Mary Tudor wasnow the most powerful person in England. 2). Soon after her accession, Marybegan considering the possibility of marrying Prince Philip of Spain, theson of her former fiancй, Emperor Charles V. It worried her that Philip was11 years her junior. With difficulty the emperor's envoy convinced her thatPhilip was a stable, mature adult who would help protect her kingdom.Mary's subjects were alarmed to learn of her engagement to the Spanishprince, fearing that England would become part of Spain. The queen,however, had no intention of turning the country over to Philip. He arrivedin England on July 20, 1554, and met Mary for the first time on July 23.Mary liked Philip from the start, and he treated her kindly, although heprobably found her unattractive. The wedding took place two days later. Twomonths later, Mary's doctors told her that she was pregnant.In December a law was passed that allowed bishops of the Church of Englandto convict heretics and sentence them to death by burning. Almost 300people were burned alive during Mary's reign with Mary's full approval,earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary."By the summer of 1555 it became obvious that Mary was no longer pregnant,if she had ever been. Mary was bitterly disappointed. Philip left Englandthat August, promising Mary that he would soon return. Mary missed himdesperately. Philip didn't return to England until March of 1557. Duringhis absence he had become the king of Spain. After a few months in Englandhe left to go to war; Mary never saw him again. She became depressed andparanoid. Tortured by loneliness and unhappiness, Queen Mary fell ill. Shedied on November 17, 1558 and was succeeded by her half-sister, QueenElizabeth I.QUEEN ELISABETH I. 1). Elizabeth I was born on September 7, 1533 atGreenwich Palace near London. Elizabeth had an older half-sister, Mary, whowas the daughter of the king's first wife, Catherine of Aragon.King Henry had moved heaven and earth to marry Anne Boleyn. Anne wasexecuted, and two weeks later the king married Jane Seymour. In 1537 QueenJane died after giving birth to a son, Edward. Elizabeth and Maryparticipated in his christening ceremony. When Elizabeth was four,Katherine Champernowne became her governess. Elizabeth was an excellentstudent. In 1540 Elizabeth's father married Anne of Cleves. Queen Katherinewas beheaded in 1542, when Elizabeth was seven years old. KatherineHoward's violent death seems to have had a lasting impact on Elizabeth. 2).In 1543 Elizabeth gained yet another stepmother when Henry married hissixth and final wife, Katherine Parr. If Mary died without heirs, Elizabethwould become queen. Soon after Henry's death, Elizabeth received a marriageproposal from handsome Thomas Seymour, who was England's Lord Admiral andthe brother of the late Queen Jane. Thomas Seymour still had designs onpretty red-haired Elizabeth. Concerned, the queen questioned Elizabeth, whocried and insisted it wasn't true. Understandably upset, Katherine banishedElizabeth from the Old Manor House. аfew months later Katherine died afterchildbirth and Seymour resumed plotting to marry Elizabeth. In 1549 Seymourwas arrested on charges of conspiring to marry Elizabeth and take over thegovernment. Kat Ashley was also arrested, along with another of Elizabeth'semployees, and Elizabeth herself was closely interrogated. 3). Elizabethcontinued to get along well with her brother, King Edward, but in 1553Edward died. Meanwhile, Henry VIII's daughter Mary was proclaimed queen byher supporters. Elizabeth obediently attended one Mass, but complained thewhole time of feeling ill. Because this and Elizabeth's popularity with theEnglish people, Mary grew wary of her half sister. When Sir Thomas Wyattled an uprising against Mary, the queen suspected that Elizabeth wasinvolved. Elizabeth was taken to London and confined at Whitehall Palace.Mary refused to see her, but Mary's new husband Philip of Spain met withElizabeth and fell under her spell. At his encouragement Mary finallyreconciled with Elizabeth. Finally, on November 17, 1558, Mary died andElizabeth's years of peril came to an end. She was now the queen ofEngland.4). Elizabeth's advisors urged the twenty-five-year old queen toquickly marry some foreign prince and produce heirs so that the thronewould not pass to Henry VIII's great-niece, Mary Stuart, the queen ofScotland. Elizabeth stood by her early decision never to marry. With thehelp of fine clothes, jewels and cosmetics, the vain queen maintained aglamorous image despite her advancing age. In her mid-fifties she fell inlove with Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, son of Lettice Knollys. Essex wasin his early twenties, good-looking, and extremely arrogant. Although hereigned as the queen's favourite for many years, he did not always showElizabeth the deference she demanded. Once, when Elizabeth slapped himduring an argument, Essex threatened to draw his sword on her. Elizabethsent him to Ireland to quell a rebellion; while there, Essex ignored thequeen's orders and pursued his own agenda. When he defied her by returningto England without permission, Elizabeth placed him under house arrest.After his release Essex attempted to lead an uprising against the queen,and the heartbroken Elizabeth had no choice but to sentence him to death.Essex was executed in 1601. Two years later Elizabeth became very ill.Perhaps she did not want to live without Essex; when her doctors offeredher medicine, she refused to take it. She died on March 24, 1603 at the ageof 69. Elizabeth was glorified by poets and artists as Gloriana, theVirgin Queen.CONCLUSION. During this period from 1485 to 1603, England developed intoone of the leading European colonial powers, with men such as Sir WalterRaleigh taking part in the conquest of the New World. Nearer to home,campaigns in Ireland brought the country under strict English control.Culturally and socially, the Tudor period saw many changes. The Tudor courtplayed a prominent part in the cultural Renaissance taking place in Europe,nurturing all-round individuals such as William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenserand Cardinal Wolsey. The Tudor period also saw the turbulence of twochanges of official religion, resulting in the martyrdom of many innocentbelievers of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. The fear of RomanCatholicism induced by the Reformation was to last for several centuriesand to play an influential role in the history of the Succession.




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