Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии icon

Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии

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Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии

ИНСТИТУТ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ФАКУЛЬТЕТ “ЯЗЫКИ И КУЛЬТУРЫ” КУРСОВАЯ РАБОТА НА ТЕМУ: “Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии” Студент 301 а/и группы Петрова Ю.А. Научный руководитель Фролова И.Г. МОСКВА-2002 Institute of foreign Languages Faculty “ Languages and Cultures” COURSE PAPER «The Plantagenet Dynasty in the History of Great Britain” Student 301 a/i group Petrova J. Scientific supervisor Frolova I.G. Moscow-2002ContentsIntroduction 4-5Part I. The early Plantagenets ( Angeving kings) 6-16 1. Henry II 7-11 2. Richard I Coeur de Lion 12-13 3. John Lackland 14-16Part II. The last Plantagenets 17-30 1. Henry III 17-18 2. Edward I 19-20 3. Edward II 21-22 4. Edward III 23-24 5. Richard II 25-30Conclusion 31-33Bibliography 34-35References 36-38 INTRODUCTION The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is amonarchy, now Parliamentary and once an absolute one. That’s why thehistory of the country closely connected with the history of Royaldynasties. Speaking about royal dynasties in England we should take in mind thefact, that the first one appeared in the country with the Norman invasionin 1066. In the ancient time after Anglo-Saxon invasion the countryconsisted of small kingdoms each ruled by its own king. Theirrepresentatives (Chieftains of the kingdoms)– the Witan – chose king ofEngland (for example Edward the Confessor). It was William the Conqueror,who began the first dynasty – House of Normandy. William I the Conqueror–Duke of Normandy (1035-1087) invaded England, defeated and killed hisrival Harold at the Battle of Hastings and became King of England. With thecoronation of William the new period in history of England began. Englandturned into a centralizes , strong feudal monarchy. The period of smallkingdoms ended and started the Era of Absolute Monarchy. William was Dukeof Normandy and at the same time the King of England. He controlled twolarge areas: Normandy – inherited from his father and England – he won it.Both areas were his personal possession. To William the only difference wasthat in France he had a King above him and he had to serve him. In Englandhe had nobody above him. Nobody could say who he was – an Englishman or aFrenchman. The Norman Conquest of England was completed by 1072 aided bythe establishment of feudalism under which his followers were granted landin return for pledges of service and loyalty. As King William was noted forhis efficient harsh rule. His administration relied upon Norman and otherforeign personnel especially Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1085started Domesday Book. In this book there was the reflection of whathappened to England. The next kings were kings of Plantagenet’s dynasty.
I have chosen the history of this dynasty as a subject for my coursepaper because, on the one hand, being a student of the English language Ican’t but be interested in the history of this country, and, on the otherhand, not so much is written about the Plantagenet’s kings, among whichthere were such world-known persons as Richard-the-Lion Heart and JohnLackland. Part I. The early Plantagenets (Angeving kings) House of Plantagenet. “The Plantagenet dynasty took its name form the “planta Genesta”(Latine), or broom, traditionally an emblem of the counts of Anjou.Geoffrey is the only true Plantagenet so-called, because he wore a springof broom-genet in his cap. It was a personal nickname, such as Henry’s“Curt-manted”. Soon this nick-name habit was to die, to be replaced bynames taken from one’s birthplace. Members of this dynasty ruled overEngland from 1154 till 1399. However, in conventional historical usage ,Henry II (son of Count Geoffrey of Anjou) and his sons Richard I and Johnare Normandy termed the Angeving kings, and their successors, up to RichardII, the Plantagenets. The term Plantagenet was not used until about 1450,when Richard, Duke of York, called himself by it in order to emphasize hisroyal descent from Edward III’s fifth son, Edmund of Langley.”(1) Henry II (1154-1189 AD) “Henry II, the first Plantagenet, born in 1133, was the son ofGeoffrey Plantagenet, Count Of Anjou, and Matilda, the daughter of Henry I. Henry II, the first and the greatest of three Angevin kings of England,succeeded Stephen in 1154. Aged 21, he already possessed a reputation forrestless energy and decisive actions. He was to inherit vast lands. Astheir heir to his mother and his father he held Anjou (hence Angevin) ,Maine, and Touraine; as the heir to his brother Geoffrey he obtainedBrittany; as the husband of Eleanor, the divorced wife of Louis VII ofFrance, he held Aquitaine, the major part of southwestern France.Altogether his holdings in France were far larger than those of the Frenchking. They have become known as the Angevin empire, although Henry II neverin fact claimed any imperial rights or used the title of the emperor.” (2)From the beginning Henry showed himself determined to assert and maintainhis rights in all his lands. In the first decade of his reign Henry II was largely concerned withcontinental affairs, though he made sure that the forged castles inEngland were destroyed. Many of the earldoms created in the anarchy ofStephen’s reign were allowed to lapse. Major change in England began in themid 1160s. The Assize of Clarendon of 1166. , and that Northampton 10 yearslater, promoted public order. Juries were used to provide evidence of whatcrimes had been committed and to bring accusations. New forms of legalactions were introduced , notably the so-called prossessory assizes, whichdetermined who had the right to immediate possession of land, not who hadthe best fundamental right. That could be decided by the grand assize, bymeans of which a jury of 12 knights would decide the case. The use ofstandardized forms of edict greatly simplified judicial administration.“Returnable” edicts, which had to be sent back by the head to the centraladministration, enabled the crown to check that its instruction wereobeyed. An increasing number of cases came before royal court rather thanprivate feudal courts. Henry I’s practice of sending out itinerant justiceswas extended and systematized. In 1170 a major inquiry into localadministration, the Inquest of Sheriffs, was held, and many sheriffs weredismissed. There were important changes to the military system. In 1166 thetenants in chief commandment to disclose the number of knights enfeoffed ontheir lands so that Henry could take proper financial advantage of changesthat had taken place since his grandfather’s days. Scutage (tax whichdismissed of military service) was an important source of funds, and Henrypreferred scutage to service because mercenaries were more efficient thanfeudal contingents. In the Assize of Arms of 1181 Henry determined the armsand equipment appropriate to every free man, based on his income from land.This measure, which could be seen as a revival of the principles of theAnglo-Saxon fyrd, was intended to provide for a local militia, which couldbe used against invasion, rebellion, or for peacekeeping. “Henry attempted to restore the close relationship between Church andState that had existed under the Norman kings. His first move was theappointment in 1162 of Thomas Becket as archbishop of Canterbury. Henryassumed that Becket, who had served efficiently as chancellor since 1155and been a close companion to him, would continue to do so as archbishop.Becket, however, disappointed him. Once appointed archbishop, he became amilitant defender of Church against royal encroachment and a champion ofthe papal ideology of ecclesiastical supremacy over the lay world. Thestruggle between Henry and Becket reached a crisis at the Council ofClarendon in 1164. In the constitution of Clarendon Henry tried to set downin writing the ancient customs of the land. The most controversial issueproved to be that of jurisdiction over “criminous clerks” (clerics who hadcommitted crimes); the king demanded that such men should , after trial inchurch courts, be sent for punishment in royal courts.” (3) “Becket initially accepted the Constitution but would not sethis seal to it. Shortly thereafter, however, he suspended himself fromoffice for the sin of yielding to the royal will in the matter. Althoughhe failed to obtain full papal support at this stage, Alexander IIIultimately came to his aid over the Constitutions. Later in 1164 Becket wascharged with peculation of royal funds when chancellor. After Becket hadtaken flight for France, the king confiscated the revenues of his province,exiled his friends, and confiscated their revenues. In 1170 Henry had hiseldest son crowned king by the archbishop of York, not Canterbury, as wastraditional. Becket, in exile, appealed to Rome and excommunicated theclergy who had taken part in the ceremony. аreconciliation between Becketand Henry at the end of the same year settled none of the points at issue.”(4) When Becket returned to England, he took further measures against theclergy who had taken part in the coronation. In Normandy the enraged king,hearing the news, burst out with the fateful words that incited four of hisknights to take ship for England and murder the archbishop of CanterburyCathedral. Almost overnight the martyred Thomas became a saint in the eyes ofthe people. Henry repudiated responsibility for the murder and reconciledhimself with the church. But despite various royal promises to abolishcustoms injurious to the church, royal control of the church was littleaffected. Henceforth criminous clerks were to be tried in church courts,save for offenses against the forest laws. Disputes over ecclesiasticalpatronage and church lands that were held on the same terms as lay estateswere, however, to come under royal jurisdiction. Finally Henry did penanceat Canterbury, allowing the monks to scourge him. But with Becket out ofthe way, it proved possible to negotiate most of the points at issuebetween church and state. The martyred archbishop, however, was to prove apotent example for future prelates.Rebellion of Henry’s sons and Eleanor of Aquitaine.Henry’s sons, urged on by their mother and by a coalition of Henry’senemies, raised a rebellion throughout his domains in 1173. King William Ithe Lion of Scotland joined the rebel coalition and invaded the north ofEngland. Lack of cooperation among the rebels, however, enabled Henry todefeat them one at a time with a mercenary army. The Scottish king wastaken prisoner at Alnwick. Queen Eleanor was retired to polite imprisonmentfor the rest of Henry’s life. The king’s sons and the baronial rebels weretreated with leniency, but many baronial castles were destroyed followingthe rising. “аbrief period of amity between Henry and Louis of Francefollowed, and the years between 1175 and 1182 marked the zenith of Henry’sprestige and power.” (5) In 1183 the younger Henry again tried to organizeopposition to his father, but he died in June of the year. Henry spent thelast years of his life locked in combat with the new French king, Philip IIAugustus, with whom his son Richard had entered into an alliance. Even hisyoungest son, John, deserted him in the end. In 1189 Henry died a brokenman, disappointed and defeated by his sons and by the French king. RICHARD I, COEUR de LION (1189-99 AD) Henry II was succeeded by his son Richard I, nicknamed the Lion Heart.Richard was born in 1157, and spent much of his youth in his mother’s courtat Poitiers. “Richard, a renowned and skillful warrior, was manlyinterested in the Crusade to recover Jerusalem and in the struggle tomaintain his French holdings against Philip Augustus.” (6) He spent onlyabout six mouths in England during his reign. “During his frequent absenceshe left a committee in charge of the realm. The chancellor WilliamLongchamp, bishop of Ely, dominated the early part of the reign untilforced into exile by baronial rebellion in 1191. Walter of Coutances,archbishop of Rouen, succeeded Longchamp, but the most important and abledof Richard’s ministers was Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury,justicial from 1193 to 1198, and chancellor from 1199 to 1205. With theking's mother , Eleanor, he put down a revolt by Richard’s brother John in1193 with strong and effective measures. But when Richard returned fromabroad, he forgave John and promised him the succession.” (7) “This reign saw some important innovations in taxation and militaryorganization. Warfare was expensive, and in addition Richard was capturedon his return from the Crusade by Leopold V of Austria and held for a highransom of 150 000 marks. Various methods of raising money were tried: anaid or scutage; tax on plow lands; a general tax of a fourth of revenuesand chattels (this was a development of the so-called Saladin Tithe raisedearlier for the Crusade); and a seizure of the wool crop of Cistercian andGilbertine houses. The ransom, although never paid in full, causedRichard’s government to become highly unpopular.” (8) Richard also facedsome unwillingness on the part of his English subjects to serve in France.аplan to raise a force of 300 knights who would serve for a whole year metwith opposition led by the bishops of Lincoln and Salisbury. Richard was,however, remarkably successful in mastering the resources, financial andhuman, of his kingdom in support of his wars. It can also be argued thathis demands on England weakened that realm unduly and that Richard left hissuccessor a very difficult legacy. John Lackland (1199-1216 AD) Richard, mortally wounded at a siege in France in 1199, was succeededby his brother John, one of the most detested of English kings. John wasborn on Christmas Eve 1167, Henry II’s youngest son. John’s reign wascharacterized by failure. Yet, while he must bear a heavy responsibilityfor his misfortunes, it is only fair to recognize that he inherited theresentment that had built up against his brother and father. Also whilehis reign ended in disaster, some of his financial and military measuresanticipated positive development in Edward I’s reign. Loss of French possessions. “John had nothing like the military ability or reputation of his brother.He could win a battle in a fit of energy, only to lose his advantage in aspell of indolence. After repudiating his first wife, Isabella ofGloucestor, John married the fiancйe of Hugh IX the Brown of the Lusignanfamily, one of his vassals in Poitou. For this offense he was summoned toanswer to Philip II , his feudal ovelord for his holdings in France. WhenJohn refused to attend , his land in France were declared forfeit.” (9) Inthe subsequent war he succeeded in capturing his nephew Arthur of Brittany,whom many in Anjou and elsewhere regarded as Richard I’s rightful heir.Arthur died under mysterious and suspicious circumstances. But once thegreat castle of Chateau Gaillard, Richard I’s pride and joy, had fallen inMarch 1204, the collapse of Normandy followed swiftly. “By 1206 all thatwas left of the inheritance of the Norman kings was the Channel Islands.John, however, was determined to recover his losses.”(10) Revolt of the barons and Magna Carta.For 200 years of ruling of Norman kings the country was ruled over on suchprinciples: King took money from barons, especially for wars. Those whorefused to pay were arrested and kept in prison and they could not defendthemselves. Their children or their relatives had to pay for them. The endof such situation came at reign of John Lackland. He was very unpopularwith his barons. In 1215 John called on for his barons to fight for him inthe war against Normandy and pay money for it. The barons, no longertrusting John refused to pay and there began a revolt. Barons gazed much toLondon and were joined by London merchants. “On June 15, 1215 the rebellion barons met John at Rennemede on theThemes. The King was presented with a document known as the Articles of theBarons, on the basis of which Magna Carta was drawn up. Magna Carta becamethe symbol of political freedom. It promised two main things:1. All “free man” protection of his officials2. The right to afair and legal trial It was the first official document when this principle was written down.It was very important for England. Magna Carta was always used by barons toprotect themselves from a powerful king.” (11) But we should say that Magna Carta gave no real freedom to the majorityof people in England (only 1/3 of population were free men). Nobles did notallow John and his successors to forget this charter. Every king had torecognize the Magna Carta. This document was the beginning of limiting theprerogatives of crown and on the other hand by limiting king’s power MagnaCarta restricted arbitrary action of barons towards the knights. MagnaCarta marked a clear stage in the collapse of the English feudalism. “After king’s signing the document barons established a committee of 24barons to make sure that John kept his promise. This committee was abeginning of English Parliament.”(12) From the very beginning Magna Carta was a failure, for it was no morethan a stage in ineffective negotiations to prevent civil war. John wasreleased by the pope from his obligations under it. The document was,however, reissued with some changes under John’s son, with papal approval.John himself died in October 1216, with the civil war still at aninconclusive stage. “Summing up the events of the late 12th century and the early 13thcentury historians describe as “Plantagenet spring after a grim Normanwinter”. The symbol of this spring is the century of new Gothic Style. Oneof the best example of Gothic architecture is Salisbury Cathedral. Also itis a century of forming Parliament. The century of growing literacy whichis closely connected with 12th century cultural movement, which is calledRenaissance. In England Renaissance was a revolution in thoughts, ideas andlearning. In England there began grammar schools. But all of them taughtLatin. In the end of the 12th century in England appeared two schools ofhigher learning – Oxford and Cambridge. By 1220 this universities becamethe intellectual leaders of the century.”(13) Part II. The last Plantagenets HENRY III (1216-1272 AD)“Henry III was the first son of John and Isabella of Angouleme. Was born in1207. At the age of nine when he was crowned, Henry’s early reign featuredtwo regents: William the Marshall governed until his death in 1219, andHugh de Burgh until Henry came to the throne in 1232. His education wasprovided by Peter des Roche, Bishop of Winchester. Henry III marriedEleanor of Province in 1236, who bore him four sons and two daughters.”(14) “Henry inherited a troubled kingdom: London and most of the southeastwas in the hands of the French Dauphin Louis and the northern regions wereunder control of rebellious barons – only the midland and southwest wereloyal to the boy king. The barons, however, soon sided with Henry (theirquarrel was with his father, not him), and the old Marshall expelled theFrench Dauphin from English soil by 1217.” (15) “Henry was a cultivated man, but a lousy politician. His court wasinundated by Frenchmen and Italians who came at the behest of Eleanor,whose relations were handed important Church and state position. His fatherand uncle left him an impoverished kingdom. Henry financed costly fruitlesswars with extortionate taxation. Inept diplomacy and failed war led Henryto sell his hereditary claims to all the Angevin possessions in France, butto save Gascony (which was held as a fief of the French crown) andCalais.”(16) “Henry’s failures incited hostilities among a group of baronsled by his brother in law , Simon de Montfort. Henry was forced to agree toa wide ranging plan of reforms, the so called “Provisions of Oxford”. Hislater papal absolution from adhering to the Provisions prompted a baronialrevolt in 1263, and Henry was summoned to the first Parliament, in 1265 –Parliament (from the French word “parleman” – meeting for discussion) wassummoned with “Commons” represented in it – two knights from a shire andtwo merchants of a town and it turned out to have been a real beginning ofthe English parlamentarism.”(17) Here we should note, the main peculiarityof English Parliament, distinguishing it from most others: it was createdas a means of opposition. Not to help the king, but to limit his power andcontrol him. Parliament insisted that a council be imposed on the king to advise onpolicy decisions. He was prone to the infamous Plantagenet temper, butcould also be sensitive and quite pious – ecclesiastical architecturereached its apex in Henry’s reign. The old king, after an extremely long reign of fifty-six years, diedin 1272. He found no success in war, but opened up English culture to thecosmopolitanism of the continent. Although viewed as a failure as apolitician, his reign defined the English monarchical position until theend of the fifteenth century: kingship limited by law – the repercussionsof which influenced the English Civil War in the reign of Charles I, andextended into the nineteenth century queenship of Victoria. Edward I, Longshanks (1272-1307) Edward I, the oldest surviving son of Henry II and Eleanor ofProvence, was born in 1239. He was nicknamed Longshanks due to his greatheight and stature. Edward married Eleanor of Castille in 1254, who borehim sixteen children ( seven of whom survived into adulthood) before herdeath in 1290. Edward reached a peace settlement with Philip IV of Francethat resulted in his marriage to the French king’s daughter Margaret, whobore him three more children. “Edward I was a capable statesman, adding much to the institutioninitiated by Henry II. It 1295, his “Model Parliament” brought togetherrepresentatives from the nobility, clergy, knights of the shires, andburgesses of the cities – the first gathering of Lords and Commons. Feudalrevenues proved inadequate in financing the burgeoning royal courts andadministrative institutions. Summoning national Parliament became theaccepted forum of gaining revenue and conducting public business. Judicialreform included the expansion of such courts as the King’s Bench, CommonPleas, Exchequer and the Chancery Court was established to give redress incircumstances where other courts provided on solution. Edward was pious,but resisted any increase of papal authority in England. Conservators ofthe Peace, the forerunners of Justices of the Peace, were also establishedas an institution.”(18) Foreign policy, namely the unification of the island’s other nations,occupied much of Edward’s time. аmajor campaign to control Llywelyn apGruffydd of Wales began in 1277, and lasted until Liywelyn’s death in 1282.In 1301, the king’s eldest son was created Prince of Wales, a title stillheld by all mail heirs to the crown. Margaret, Maid of Norway andlegitimate heir to the Scottish crown, died in 1290, leaving a disputedsuccession in Scotland. Edward was asked to arbitrate between thirteendifferent claimants. John Baliol, Edward’s first choice, was unpopular, hisnext choice, William Wallace, rebelled against England until his captureand execution in 1305. Robert Bruce seized the Scottish throne in 1306,later to become a source of consternation to Edward II. Edward died en rout to yet another Scottish campaign in 1307. Hischaracter found accurate evaluation by Sir Richard Baker, in аChronicle ofthe kings of England: “He had in him the two wisdoms, not often found inany, single. Both together, seldom or never: an ability of judgement inhimself, and a readiness to hear the judgment of others. He was not easilyprovoked into passion, but once in passion , not easily appeared, as wasseen by his dealing with the Scots; towards whom he showed at firstpatience, and at last severity. If he was censured for his many taxations,he may be justified by his well bestowing them; for never prince laid outhis money to more honour of himself , or good of his kingdom.” (19) Edward II (1307-1327 AD) Edward II the son of Eleanor of Castille and Edward I, was born in1284. He married Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France, in 1308.Eleanor bore him two sons and two daughters. “Edward was as much of a failure as a king as his father was asuccess. He loved money and other rewards upon his mail favourites, raisingthe ire of the nobility. The most notable was Piers Gaveston, hishomosexual lover. On the day of Edward’s marriageу to Isabella, Edwardpreferred the couch of Gaveston to that of his new wife. Gaveston wasexiled and eventually murdered by Edward’s father for his licentiousconduct with the king. Edward’s means of maintaining power was based on thenoose and the block – 28 knights and barons were executed for rebellingagainst the decadent king.” (20) Edward faired no better as a solder. The rebellions of the baronsopened the way for Robert Bruce to grasp much of Scotland. Bruce’s victoryover English forces at the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, ensured Scottishindependence until the union of England and Scotland in 1707. In 1324 the war broke out with France, prompting Edward to sentIsabella and their son Edward (later became Edward III) to negotiate withher brother and French king, Charles IV. “Isabella fell into an openromance with Roger Mortimer, one of the Edward’s disaffected barons. Therebellious couple invaded England in 1327, capturing and imprisoningEdward. The king was deposed, replaced by his son, Edward III.”(21) Edward II was murdered in September 1327 at Berkley castle, by a red-hot iron inserted through his sphincter into his bowels. Comparison ofEdward I and Edward II was beautifully described by Sir Richard Baker, inreference to Edward I in аChronicle of the Kings of England “His greatunfortunate was in his greatest blessing, for four of his sons which hehad by his Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who wereworthy to have outlived him, and the fourth outlived him, who was worthynever to have been born.” ( 22 ) аstrong indictment of a weak king.” (23) Edward III (1327-1377) Edward III, the eldest son of Edward II and Isabella of France, wasborn in 1312. His youth was spent in his mother’s court , until he wascrowned at the age of 14, in 1327. Edward was dominated by his mother andher lover, Roger Mortimer, until 1330, wen Mortimer was executed andIsabella was exiled from court. Philippa of Hainault married Edward in 1328and bore him many children. The Hundred Years’ War occupied the largest part of Edward’s reign.It began in 1338-1453. The war was carried during the reign of 5 Englishkings. Edward III and Edward Baliol defeated David II of Scotland, anddrove him into exile in 1333. The French cooperation with the Scots, Frenchaggression in Gascony, and Edward’s claim to the throne of France (throughhis mother Isabella, who was the sister of the king; the Capetiance failedto produce a mail heir) led to the outbreak of War. “The sea battle ofSluys (1340) gave England control of the Channel, and battle at Crecy(1346), Calais (1347), and Poitiers (1356) demonstrated English supremacyon the land. Edward, the Black Prince and eldest son of Edward III,excelled during this first phase of the war.”(24) Throughout 1348-1350 the epidemic of a plague so called “The BlackDeath” swept across England and northern Europe, removing as much as halfthe population. This plague reached every part of England. Few than one often who caught the plague could survive it. If in Europe 1/3 of populationdied within a century , in England 1/3 of population died during two years.The whole villages disappeared. This plague continued till it died outitself. English military strength weakened considerably after the plague,gradually lost so much ground that by 1375, Edward agreed to the Treaty ofBruges, which only left England Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne. Domestically, England saw many changes during Edward’s reign.Parliament was divided into two Houses – Lords and Commons – and metregularly to finance the war. Treason was defined by statute for the firsttime (1352). In 1361 the office of Justice of the Peace was created.Philippa died in 1369 and the last years of Edward’s reign mirrored thefirst; he was once again dominated by a woman, his mistress, Alice Perrers.Alice preferred one of Edward’s other sons, John of Gaunt, over the BlackPrince, which caused political conflict in Edward’s last years. Edward the Black Prince died one year before his father. RafaelHolinshed intimated that Edward spent his last year in grief and remorse,believing the death of his son was a punishment for usurping his father’scrown. In Chronicles of England, Holinshed wrote: “But finally the thingthat most grieved him, was the loss of that most noble gentleman, his dearson Prince Edward…. But this and other mishaps that chanced to him now inhis old years, might seem to come to pass for a revenge of his disobedienceshowed to his in usurping against him….” (25) There is one more point about Edward’s reign, concerning the Englishlanguage. Edward had forbidden speaking French in his army, and by the endof the 14th century English once again began being used instead of Frenchby ruling literate class. Richard II (1377-99) Richard II’s reign was fraught with crisis – economic , social,political, and constitutional. He was 10 years old when his grandfatherdied, and the first problem the country faced was having to deal with hismonitoring. а“constitutional council” was set up to “govern the king andhis kingdom”. Although John of Gaunt was still the dominant figure in theroyal family, neither he no his brothers were included.The peasant’s revolt.“(1381) Financing the increasingly expensive and unsuccessful war withFrance was a major preoccupation. At the end of Edward III’s reign a newdevice, a poll tax of four pence a head, had been introduced. аsimilar butgraduated tax followed in 1379, and in 1380 another set at one shilling ahead was granted. It proved inequitable and impractical, and when thegovernment tried to speed up collection in the spring of 1381 a popularrebellion – the Peasants’ Revolt – ensued. Although the pool tax was thespark that set it off, there were also deeper causes related to changes inthe economy and to political developments.”(26) The government inpractical, engendered hostility to the legal system by its policies ofexpanding the power of the justices of the peace at the expense of localand monorail courts. In addition, popular poor preachers spread subversiveideas with slogans such as : “When Adam delved and Eve span/ Who was thenthe gentleman?” (27) The Peasants’ revolt began in Essex and Kent.Widespread outbreaks occurred the southeast of England, taking the form ofassault on tax collectors, attacks on landlords and their manor houses,destruction of documentary evidence of villein status, and attacks onlawyers. Attacks on religious houses, such as that at St. Albans, wereparticularly severe, perhaps because they had been among the mostconservative of landlords in commuting labour services. The men of Essex and Kent moved to London to attack the king’scouncilors. Admitted to the city by sympathizers, they attacked John ofGaunt’s place of the Savoy as well as the Fleet prison. On June 14 theyoung king made them various promises at Mile End; on the same day theybroke into the Tower and killed Sudbury, the chancellor, Hales, thetreasure and other officials. On the next day Richard met the rebels againat Smithfield, and their main leader, Wat Tyler, presented their demands.But during the negotiations Tyler was attacked and slain by the mayor ofLondon. The young king rode forward and reassured the rebels, asking themto follow him to Clerkenwell. This proved to be a turning point, and therebels, their suppliers exhausted, began to make their way home. “Richardwent back on his promises he had made saying, “Villeins you are andvilleins you shall remain.”(28) In October Parliament confirmed the king’srevocation of charters but demanded amnesty save for a few specialoffenders. “The events of the Peasants’ Revolt may have given Richard an exaltedidea of his own powers and prerogative as a result of his success atSmithfield, but for the rebels the gains of the rising amounted to no morethan the abolition of the poll taxes.”(29) Improvement in the socialposition of the peasantry did occur, but not so mach as a consequence ofthe revolt as of changes in the economy that would have occurred anyhow. John Wycliffe. “Religious unrest was another subversive factor under Richard II. Englandhad been virtually free from heresy until John Wycliffe, a priest and anOxford scholar, began his career as a religious reformer with two treatiesin 1375 – 76. He argued that the exercise of lordship depended on graceand that therefore, a sinful man had no right to authority. Priest had eventhe pope himself , Wycliffe went on to argue, might not necessarily be instate of grace and thus would lack authority. Such doctrines appealed toanticlerical sentiments and brought Wycliffe into direct conflict with thechurch hierarchy, although he received protection from John of Gaunt. Thebeginning of the Great Schism in 1378 gave Wycliffe fresh opportunities toattack the papacy, and in a treaties of 1379 on the Eucharist he openlydenied the doctrine of transubstantiation. He was ordered before thechurch court at Lambeth in 1378. In 1380 his views were condemned by acommission of theologians at Oxford, and he was forced to leave theuniversity. At Lutterworth he continued to write voluminously until hisdeath.”(30) Political struggles and Richard’s desposition.Soon after putting down the Peasants’ Revolt, Richard began to build up acourt party, partly in opposition to Gaunt. а crisis was precipitated in1386 when the king asked Parliament for a grant to meet the French treat.Parliament responded by demanding the dismissal of the king’s favorites,but Richard insisted that he would not dismiss so much as a scullion in thekitchen at the request of Parliament. In the end he was forced by theimpeachment of the chancellor, Michel de la Pole, to agree to theappointment of a reforming commission. Richard withdrew from London andwent on a “gyration” of the country. He called his judges before him atShrewsbury and asked them to pronounce the actions of Parliament illegal.An engagement at Radcot Bridge, at which Richard’s favorite, Robert deVere, 9th Earl of Oxford was defeated settled the matter of ascendancy. Inthe Merciless Parliament of 1388 five lords accused the king’s friends oftreason under an expansive definition of the crime. “Richard was chastened, but he began to recover his authority asearly as the autumn of 1388 at the Cambridge Parliament. Declaring himselfto be of age in 1389, Richard anounced that he was taking over thegovernment. He pardoned the Lords Appellant and ruled with some moderationuntil 1394, when his queen Ann of Bohemia, died.”(31) After putting down arebellion in Ireland, he was , for a time, almost popular. He began toimplement his personal policy once more and rebuilt a royal party with thehelp of a group of young nobles. He made a 28- years truce with France andmarried the French king’s seven-year-old daughter. He built up a householdof faithful servants, including the notorious Sir John Bushy, Sir WilliamBagot, and Sir Henry Green. “He enlisted household troops and built a widenetwork of “king’s knight” in the counties, distributing to them hispersonal budge, the White Hart.”(32) The first sign of renewed crisis emerged in January 1397, whencomplaints were put forward in Parliament and their author, Thomas Haxey,was adjudged a traitor. “Richard’s rule, based on fear rather then consent,became increasingly tyrannical.”(33) Three of the Lords Appellant of 1388were arrested in July and tried in Parliament. The Earl of Arundel wasexecuted and Warwick exiled. Gloucester, whose death was reported toParliament, had probably been murdered. The act of the 1388 Parliament wasrepealed. Richard was granted the customs of revenues for life, and thepower of parliament was delegated to a committee after the assembly wasdissolved. Richard also built up a power base in Cheshire. Events leading to Richard’s downfall followed quickly. The Duke ofNorfolk and Henry Bolingbroke, John of Gaunt’s son, accused each other oftreason and were banished, the former for life, the latter for 10 years.Hen Gaunt himself died early in 1399, Richard confiscated his estatesinstead of allowing his son to claim them. Richard seemingly secure, wentoff to Ireland. Henry, however landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire to claim,as he said, his father’s estate and the hereditary stewardship. ThePercys, the chief lord of the north, welcomed him. Popular support waswidespread, and when Richard returned from Ireland his cause was lost. “The precise course of events is hard to reconstruct., in view ofsubsequent alteration to the records. аParliament was called in Richard’sname, but before it was fully assembled at the end of September, itsmembers were presented with Richard’s alleged abdication and Henry’s claimto the throne as legitimate descendant of Henry III as well as by right ofconquest.”(34) Thirty-tree articles of deposition were set forth againstRichard, and his abdication and deposition were duly accepted. Richard diedat Pontefract Castle, either of self-starvation or by smothering. Thusended the last attempt of a medieval king to exercise arbitrary power.“Whether or not Richard had been motivated by new theories about the natureof monarchy, as some have claimed, he had failed in the practical measuresnecessary to sustain his power. He had tried to rule through fear andmistrust in his final years, but he had neither gained sufficient supportamong the magnates by means of patronage nor created a popular basis ofsupport in the shires and in 1399 Richard was disposed and he abdicated totheу favour of Henry Lancaster and so the dynasty of Plantagenetsended.”(35)CONCLUSION.Summing up the events of Plantagenets rule and their role in the history ofEngland, we should mark the following. 11th - 12th centuries (the first Plantagenets) were the years ofconstitutional progress and territorial expansion. “The 13th century is described as a “Plantagenet spring after a grimNorman winter”. The symbol of this spring is the century of new GothicStyle. One of the best example of Gothic architecture is SalisburyCathedral. Also it is a century of growing literacy which is closelyconnected with 12th century cultural movement, which is called Renaissance.In England Renaissance was a revolution in thoughts, ideas and learning,foundation of universities, the development of the Common Law and theParliament, and emergence of English as the language of the nation.”(36) The 14th century brought the disasters of the Hundred Years' War(1337 -–1453), the Peasants’ revolt (1381), the extermination of thepopulation by the Black Death (1348 – 1349). Although the outbreak of theBlack Death in 1348 dominated the economy of the 14th century, a member ofadversities had already occurred in the preceding decades. Severe rains in1315 and 1316 caused famine, which lead to the spread of disease. Animalepidemic in succeeding of currency in the 1330s. Economic expansion, whichhad been characteristic of the 13th century, had slowed to a halt. TheBlack Death, possibly a combination of bubonic and pneumonic plagues,carried off from one-third to one half of the population. In some respectsit took time for its effects to become detrimental to the economy, but withsubsequent outbreaks, as in 1361 and 1369, the population declined further,causing a severe labor shortage. By the 1370 wages had risen dramaticallyand prices of foodstuffs fallen. Hired laborers, being fewer, asked forhigher wages and better food, and peasant tenants, also fewer, asked forbetter conditions of tenure when they took up land. Some landlordsresponded by trying to reassert labor services where they had beencommuted. “ The Ordinance(1349) and Statute (1351) of Laborers tried to setmaximum wages at the levels of the pre-Black Death years, but strictenforcement proved impossible. The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 was one resultof the social tension caused by the adjustment needed after the epidemic.Great landlords saw their revenues fall as a result of the Black Death,although probably by only about 10 percent, whereas for the lower orders ofsociety real wages rose sharply by the last quarter of the 14th centurybecause of low grain prices and high wages.”(37) Edward III ruined the major Italian banking companies in England byfailing to repay loans early in the Hundred Years’ War. This providedopening for English Merchants, who were given monopolies of wool exportsby the crown in return for their support. The most notable was William dela Pole of Hull, whose family rose to noble status. Heavy taxation of woolexports was one reason for the growth of the cloth industry and clothexports in the 14th century. The wine trade from Gascony was alsoimportant. In contrast to the 13th century, no new towns were founded, butLondon is particular continued to prosper despite the ravage of plague. “In cultural terms, a striking change in the 14th century was theincreasing use of English. Although an attempt to make the use of Englishmandatory in the law courts failed because lawyers claimed that they couldnot plead accurately in the language, the vernacular began to creep intopublic documents and records. Henry of Lancaster even used English when heclaimed the throne in 1399. Chaucer wrote in both French and English, buthis important poetry is in the latter. The early 14th century was animpressive age for manuscript illumination in England, with the so-calledEast Anglian school, of which the celebrated Luttrell Psalter represents alate example. In ecclesiastical architecture the development of thePerpendicular style, largely in the second half of the 14th century, wasparticularly notable.”(38)Bibliography 1. Черняк Е.Б. Тайны Англии: Заговоры, интриги, мистификации. – М. Остожье, 1996 2. Грин Вивиан Х. Безумные короли: Личная травма и судьба народов. – М. Зевс, Феникс, 1997. 3. Цингейт Филиппа Королевские династии: учебное пособие для дополнительного образования – Москва, Росмэн, 1997 4. История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 5. Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975. 6. Fryde Natalie The tyranny and fall of Edward II, 1321-1326. Cambridge etc.: Cambridge univ. Press – 1979. 7. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958. 8. Costain Thomas B. The Last Platagenets. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1962. 9. Harvey John, The Plantagenets. New York – 197310. Stubbs William The early Plantagenets. London(a.o.0, Longmans, Green and co., 1909.11. Appleby John Tate, John, king of England. N.Y., Knopf-1959.12. Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888.13. Costain Thomas B. The conquering family. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1962.14. The Cambridge Illustrated dictionary of British Heritage. Edited by Alan Isaacs and Jennifer monk. - 198615. Costain Thomas B. The magnificent century. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1951.16. Tout T.F. Edward the first. London, Macmillian – 1920.17. Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. аbiography. Lnd. Hale – 1958.18. Who’s who in history. Vol. 1 British Isles 55 B.C. To 1485. – 1960.19. The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997.References.1. Stubbs William The early Plantagenets. London(a.o.0, Longmans, Green and co., 1909. 43p.2. Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 29p.3. Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 48-49p.4. Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 56-61p.5. Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 63p.6. Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. а biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958.10p.7. Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. аbiography. Lnd. Hale – 1958. 12-13 p.8. Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. а biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958.21-23p.9. История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 301-302p.10. История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 312-314p.11. История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 3329-332p.12. История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 334p.13. Цингейт Филиппа Королевские династии: учебное пособие для дополнительного образования – Москва, Росмэн, 1997. 249-256p.14. Harvey John, The Plantagenets. New York – 1973.49-52p.15. Harvey John, The Plantagenets. New York – 1973. 67-68p.16. Грин Вивиан Х. Безумные короли: Личная травма и судьба народов. – М. Зевс, Феникс, 1997. 123-124p.17. The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997. 36p.18. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958.91-93p.19. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958. 127p.20. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958.134-135p.21. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958.138-140p.22. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958.154p.23. Costain Thomas B. The Last Platagenets. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1962.357p.24. The Cambridge Illustrated dictionary of British Heritage. Edited by Alan Isaacs and Jennifer monk. – 1986. 115-123p.25. Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958.169p.26. Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975.77-81p.27. Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975.114-115p.28. Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975. 204-206p.29. Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975. 235-236p.30. Черняк Е.Б. Тайны Англии: Заговоры, интриги, мистификации. – М. Остожье, 1996. 327-339p.31. Черняк Е.Б. Тайны Англии: Заговоры, интриги, мистификации. – М. Остожье, 1996. 348-349p.32. Черняк Е.Б. Тайны Англии: Заговоры, интриги, мистификации. – М. Остожье, 1996. 357-360p.33. The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997. 40p.34. The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997.41p.35. The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997.41p.36. Costain Thomas B. The magnificent century. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1951.98-99p.37. Costain Thomas B. The magnificent century. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1951.104-105p.38. Costain Thomas B. The magnificent century. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1951.106p.----------------------- Geoffrey Plantagenet Henry II Richard IJohn Lackland Edward I Henry III Edward II Edward III Richard II


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