Phonetics – the branch of linguistics that studies word components of the phonetic system of the language. Concerned with human noises by which the thought is actualized or given audible shape + nature, icon

Phonetics – the branch of linguistics that studies word components of the phonetic system of the language. Concerned with human noises by which the thought is actualized or given audible shape + nature,



НазваниеPhonetics – the branch of linguistics that studies word components of the phonetic system of the language. Concerned with human noises by which the thought is actualized or given audible shape + nature,
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Phonetics

  • the branch of linguistics that studies word components of the phonetic system of the language.

  • Concerned with human noises by which the thought is actualized or given audible shape + nature, fs, relation to the mng of these noises

  • Most fundamental, basic ling brunch

  • =grammar and lexicology


Components of phonetic system:

  • segmental phonemes

  • word stress

  • syllabic structure

  • intonation


3 branches of phonetics: psychological phonetics (articulatory\auditory aspects), acoustic phonetics (physical properties of producing sounds), functional phonetics (phonology).

Acc to Sokolova: acoustic, articulatory, auditory ph-cs.


Aims

  • to refresh knowledge of general phonetics

  • To enlarge knowledge and bring it to date

  • To systematize elements of ph theory

  • To get to know moot points and unsolved problems

  • To know modern methods of phonetic and phonemic classifications


Articulatory ph-cs: study, description, classification of speech sounds as regards the production.

Methods of art. Ph-cs:

Subjectivemethod of direct observation.

  • Observing movements of organs of speech

  • Analyzing one’s own kinesthetic sensations during articulation

  • Comparing results in auditory impression

Objective – using various instrumental techniques

  • Palatography

  • Photography

  • x-ray

  • cinematography

  • x-ray photography



Components of Phonetic System in English


  • Spectral component

  • Pitch

  • Voice timbre

  • Intensity

  • Time\duration



Articulation basis: a sum total of the general tendencies in movements and positions of organs of speech in neutral position or at rest.


English

Articulation Basis

Russian










  • Broadened

  • Flattened

  • Drawn back

  • Retracted

General tendency: to hold tongue

in neutral position

Tongue

  • Narrowed

  • Advanced




  • Moves towards teeth ridge

Tongue tip

  • Moves to upper teeth




  • Grooved

  • Hollowed up

Fore part of the tongue

  • Arched

  • Raised




  • Almost never

Teeth contact

  • Almost always




  • In neutral position

Lips

  • Very active




  • Very active

Glottis







  • Tense

Muscles







  • Dull

Pronunciation

  • Clear






^ Functions of speech sounds:


functions

phonemes

syllables

accent

intonation

Constitutive




Constitute the material forms of

all ws, phrases, sent.

All ws pronounced in isolation have w accent

Each w in a sent has its own pitch, rhythm, tempo

Distinctive

Differentiating 1 w from another

Differentiating ws by syllabic boundaries

[ai so he aiz] - [ai so he raiz]

Differentiating ws by stress import-import

Diff 1 sense group from another

Recognitive

Make ws recognizable. Pick-peak, cart-cut














Principle Types of English pronunciation


National Language – written (generally accepted standard) and spoken forms (may vary from locality to locality)


Dialect – differ in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation - dialectology, sociolinguistics

Different types of pronunciation may vary in all components of pron system.

Orphoepic norm – dialect that became standard pron. due to economical, geographical, political factors. Other dialects – illiterate, uncultural.


^ Within standard variant there also can be some differences – ex. Moscow\st.Peter pron.


All national types of English pronunciation have many features in common due the common origin. And have many differences due to the different development after the separation from the GB.


^ In British isles: southern English, Northern, Scottish


RP

GA

Scottish

Welsh

Southern

(Cockney)

Northern

Northern

Eastern Am

Southern Am

northern

Ireland

[blAd]







[bləd]

[blaeid]

[blud]










[nau]










[naeэ]













[leidi]







[lз:di]

[laidi]













[baeg]










[beg]













[siti]







[siti:]

[siti:]

[siti:]

[siti]







[da:ns]

[daens]

[da:ns]







[daens]










[gзl]




[girl]

[go:l]




[g:l]













Let-lεət

Before ptk

[i]-[i:]

NO:

[iə]

[uə]

[з:]

[εə]










[I,u] r central,

:& o contrast only before ptk







Consonants:

R is rh

L is dark

[j] is weak

latter-ladder

[t] is voiced

P,t,k non-asp

T=gl st

Х occur

Ing=in

Ǿr=fr

[l] is clear

phith

[r] rh

Ǿ=f

Ð=d

Ð=v

L=v

Ŋ=n

[iŋ] = [in]

gl.st. after p,t,k

[r] - uvular

L is clear

T=d

Ð smts lost

H is present


Vowel sys is similar to scottish









^ American Based pron.: 1. the eastern type (is spoken in new England, in new york city, it bears a remarkable resemblance to southern English.) 2. The southern type (used in south and south-east of usa, it possesses a striking distinctive feature – vowel drawl.) 3. general American.(is spoken in atlantic states: new york, new jersey y etc., it’s the pronunciation standard as its language is used by radio and tv.)


The phoneme

  • Basic concept of phonetics

  • Smallest unit of language, existing as such speech sound which is capable of differentiating one word from another, or one grammatical form from another.

  • Speech sound that makes a difference in meaning

  • A class or family of sounds regarded as a single sound and represented in transcription by the same symbol

  • Abstractional and generalized in character exists in our minds as an abstraction and at the same time is generalized in speech in the form of its allophones


Phoneme may be pronounced differently in different ws but still remain the same phoneme pleat-play-wale


2 main classes of phonemes: vowels and consonants


Pairs of ws that demonstrate a phonemic contrast – minimal pairs (discovered by method of commutation)


MP – differ only in 1 element


actually pronounced sound is always an allophone

different allophones of 1 phoneme have one or more acoustic, articulatory features in common, but may have slight difference due to the adjust sounds or other purely phonetic factors.

Allophone that has all acoustic, articulatory features given in classification – a sound in isolation or the principle variant of phoneme

All others – subsidiary variants


to mix allophones – non-phonological, allophonic mistake

to mix phonemes – phonemic, phonological mistake


Phonological analysis:

The two main problems:

  1. the establishment of the phonemic inventory for a language (буквы, что фонема, что аллофон)

Methods:

Distributional – is based on the phonological rule, that different phonemes can occur in one and the same position, while allophones of one and the same phoneme occur in different positions (cat-rat/ cat-skate). It’s possible to establish the phonemic status of any sound just by contrasting it with the other sound without knowing the meaning of the words.

Semantic – attaches great importance to meaning. It’s based on the assumption that a phoneme can distinguish words only when opposed to another phoneme or zero in an identical phonetic context (ask”0”-asks). Pairs of words differing only in one sound are called minimal pairs.

  1. the establishment of the inventory of phonologically relevant elements for a given language.

L. Blomfield (American descriptive linguist) considered it impossible to identify the phonemes of a language without recourse to meaning in the ordinary sense of word.

Great phonemic dissimilarity – entirely or greatly different sounds, such as a vowel and a consonant cannot be allophones of the same phoneme.

Conditioned allophonic similarity – the more or less similar sounds which are at the same time more or less different, are allophones of the same phoneme if the difference between them is clearly due to the influence of purely external phonetic factors, such as neighbouring sounds, stress, etc..


Vowels:

  • All vowels are oral sounds (articulated through mouth, sometimes partially nasal)

  • All vowels are voiced

  • Are characterized by free flow of air through the oral cavity

  • Distinguishing features are made by tongue position


Opinions:

  1. some say of 12 vowels, excluding difthongues

  2. sm speak of 20 vowels, 2 monoft. + 8 diphthongues

  3. sm speak of 21 vowels (Russian linguists)


monof. – vowels, pronounced in a way that during pronunciation organs of speech do not change their position

dif. – when pronouncing, organs start in the position of one vowel and gradually move to the position of other vowel. 1st vowel – nucleus, 2nd - a glide


[ei] [ai] [oi]

[au] [ou]

[iэ] [iэ] [iэ]

American dif-s [ai] [au] [oi]

Sm single out [oэ]


May be classified according to:

-position of the tongue (horizontal, neither advanced nor retrected)

-position of lips

-acc 2 length

-acc 2 degree of tenseness

Unstressed vocalism of English


Neutral ə

Occur only in unstressed position

Can perform distinctive fs only when opposed to other unstressed vowels

Neutral ə is a core of unstressed voc of English. All allophones are known in ling as schwa vowel

Independent phonemic status of neutral vowels provided by lots of mp where schwa is opposed to other neutral vowels. [ə] – [i] \ [ə] – [ou]


Semi-weak vowels – vowels, lying between strong and neutral vowels


[o] – [ou]


careful style [o] - [o’bei]

colloquial style [ə] - [ə ‘bei]

full style [ou] – [ou’bei]


a product of partial reduction

s-w vowels are never opposed to the corresponding vowels of full-formation or neutral vowels


^ Vowels of full formation


The system of English consonantal phonemes


Manner\place

bilabial

Labial-dental

interdental

alveolar

velar

glottal

occlusive

Plosives

P, b, m







T, d, n

K, g, ŋ




Affricates










t∫ , d٤







constrictive

Fricatives




F, v

Ǿ, ð

, s, z, ٤




h

sonorants










L, r

j






English Segmental Phonemes in Writing

Language performs its function as an important medium of human inter-communication not only in oral, but also in written form. Material integument of written language is made by graphic symbols – letters and hieroglyphics.


Of the aims of phonetics is to study the connection between the oral speech and its graphical representation.

English language is known for irregularities of spelling, due to different principles of orthography.


^ 1.Phonemic principle

The main principle. Represents phonemes, but not its allophones. (In some languages allophones of the same phoneme are presented by different letters – Ы-И).


The main unit of this principle – a grapheme.

It has the same functions as the phoneme:

Constitutive: written form of every word consists of graphemes.

Distinctive: written form of every word may be distinguished from that of an other by different graphemes directly (opposed sounds are represented by diff graphemes) and indirectly (graphemes differ from each other to homophones)


^ 2. Differentiating principle

based on the independent of the phoneme distinctive function ……..?

great number of homophonous words sent-scent-cent


3. Historical\traditional\conservative principle

consist of preservation of such spelling that existed in early periods of language and no longer reflects the real pronunciation of words. Some letters seized to represent any phonemes because these phonemes a) seized to exist b) had dropped out from the particular ws c) letters began to represent newly developed or different phonemes

    • graphemes either lost or changed their phonemic reference.

^ Brought-taught-thought gh denoted the phoneme [h] in MidE, spelling survived even after [h] disappeared. Still it has a differentiating function – right-rite


No orthography is capable of reflecting the exact pronunciation of the language


Transcription – graphical designation of phonemes, stress etc.

Transliteration – representation of pronunciation of one language by means of other language.


Phonetic Symbolism

“There are some words that we feel to be more adequate to express certain ideas. We feel that ‘roll’ is more adequate than ‘катать’, because the very sounding of ‘roll’ make it more expressive” (c) Otto Espreson


Ph. Symbolism is connected with poetry.

There are 3 kinds of Ph. Symbolism in poetry:

-onomatopoeia (murmur, whisper, moan)

-special sounds that are difficult to articulate, good to reflect violent moves, attacks

-sp sounds which themselves suggest mng – phonetic intensives or phonesthemes.


Sound combination

What expresses

example

fl

Moving light

Flash

Flare

Flame

Visible move

Fly

flee










gl

light

Glow

Glitter

glare










b

impact

Bang

Bump

boom










bl

Impetus use of air

Blow

Blizzard

Bluster










gr

roughness

Grind

Grit

Gravel

grizzly










skr

Getting impact

Scrape

scrabble










sp

A point

Spot

Spark

Jerking start

Spring

Spray










str

Sense of thinness

Straw

Straight

String










pl

Stepping or falling

Plunge

Play

Plug










sn

Smth with nose

Sneeze

Snore

Sniff










st

Succession of action

Stay

Stop












The accentual structure of English words


Fs: to differentiate V from N import-import

Presyntactic w combination from compound ws blackbird - black bird


American approach

primary stress

secondary

tertiary

weak

British approach

Primary

Secondary

Weak


Stress: musical, dynamic

In eng stress in free, in some other languages - fixed


Stress is considered from the point of view of its ^ 1) position 2) degree of force


In 2 syll ws primary stress falls on the first syllable

In 3 syll ws – on the 2nd syll

In 4 and more – on 3d from the end


Secondary stress depends on the number of syllables and the place of the primary stress.

Others – unstressed (have weak stress).


Types of sentence stress. 1.Normal (is used to arrange the sentence phonetically, to single a nuclear of the centre of the utterance – I want a blue dress) 2.Logical (when the symantic centre is shifted from the last notional word to soma other word than it’s a logical stress – the weather is nice today)3. Emphatic (stress may differ according to the degree of prominence with which the symantic sentence is pronounced, emph stress is associated with fall rise and mid and figh fall – the weather is nice today).


. Sentence-Stress and its Phonological Status


Functions:

  1. Constitutive. SS organizes intonation patterns semantically and syntactically. It also helps to single out the communicative center and other important items of the utterance. Nominal words are usually accented, and form words are usually unstressed. Although form words may be accented or stressed in certain structural types of sentences, in certain positions in a sentence they may be emphasized logically.

^ It "is important.

It is im"portant.

We distinguish three types of SS:

  • Normal

Normal Accent (Normal SS) arranges the utterance phonetically, renders the meaning and indicates the nucleus of the communicative center which in this case is associated with the last notional word.

  • Logical

Logical Stress presupposes the shifting of the nucleus from the last notional word in a sense group to another word which we emphasize logically.

  • Emphatic

Both Normal & Logical SS’s may be unemphatic & emphatic. Emphatic accent implies the increase of the effort of expression.


  1. ^ The distinctive function of SS. Intonation patterns differ primarily in respect to the position of the nucleus of the communicative center. The opposition of the intonation patterns is capable of fulfilling:

the syntactically distinctive function - the number of communicative centers indicates the number of intonation groups. In this case the opposition of intonation (accentuation) patterns fulfills this function.

(Do you know his schoolmate, | Harry?)

the semantically distinctive function – is realized in the opposition of different accentuation patterns:

^ You forget your"self (You neglect yourself).

You for"get yourself (Ты забываешься).

the attitudinally distinctive function – may be demonstrated by changing the accentuation pattern of the sentence.

What shall I do?

(If ‘shall’ is unaccented, it is an auxiliary verb – Что же делать? ; if it is the nucleus of the communicative center, it functions as a modal verb and here the meaning is changed (insistent).

→ together with pitch accent (SS) also fulfills the function of dividing a sentence into theme and rheme.


Intonation

4 components of intonation: pitch, loudness, tempo (prosodic components of intonation) timbre (not recognized unanimously, according to Sokolova)

The role of intonation in speech: auditory level - realization of into in speech. Each syllable of speech has a special pitch coloring. The general function of intonation - is a communicative function. It differentiates informational content, text structure, meaning of lexical units, stylistic functions, attitude, statements\questions\commands etc.


The sense group is a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complex.

In Phonetics actualized sense groups are called intonation groups.

Intonation patterns containing a number of syllables consist of the following parts:

  • the prehead

  • the head (the 1st accented syllable)

  • t
    terminal tone
    he scale (begins with the 1st acc.syll.)

  • the nucleus (the last acc.syll.) – is the most important part of the intonation pattern.

  • the tail – conveys no particular information


Intonation Pattern:

Nucleus+ stressed and undressed syllables. Intonation pattern serves to actualize syntagms.

Nucleus: the nucleus (the last acc.syll.) – is the most important part of the intonation pattern. A stressed syllable which has a greater prominence than the others. Generally – the last strongly accented syllable of an intonation pattern. Marks a significant change in pitch direction (distinctly up or down). Nuclear tones: low fall, high fall, low rise, high rise, fall rise, rise fall, rise fall rises.


Graphical representation of intonation:

  1. Ch. Fries drawing a line around the sentence to show relative pitch heights

  2. D. Bolinger the syllables are written at different height where up-selected syllables show stress.

  3. K .Pike marks syllables with numbers from 1-4, where 1 is the strongly stressed syllable.

  4. O’Connor’s the one we use



Rhythm and tempo

Rhythm – a general term, connected with time and space. Realized in lexical, syntactical and prosodic means and their combinations: word repetition, syntactical parallelism, intensification are perceived as rhythmical on lexical, syntactical and prosodic levels.

^ Type of rhythm depends on the language:


Syllable-timed (French, Spanish, and other Romance lang-s ) - speaker gives equal amount of time to each syllable.


Stress-timed (Germanic lang-s as English, German, Russian.) – rhythm is based on a larger unit than syllable. Stressed syllables are pronounced and equal intervals, no matter how many unstressed syllables are between them.


Speech rhythm is usually considered to be a recurrence of stressed syllables at more or less equal intervals of time in speech continuum.

Basic unit – a rhythmic group – a speech segment that contains a stressed syllable and unstressed syll-s attached to it. ^ Stressed syll is a prosodic nucleus of the rhythmic group.

Initial unstressed syllables preceding nucleus – proclitics, the following ones – enclitics.


Tempo – expresses different degrees of importance in utterance, emotional state. Tempo increases when giving highly emotional statements and slows down in less emotional state.


Phonostylictics


The choice of prosodic means depends on the purpose of utterance. The choice of style depends on extra-linguistic factors such age, occupation, sex, emotional state and purpose.


¤ Scientific Style: delivering lectures, seminars, reading aloud prose, conversations on scientific topic.

Description: highly emotional, aimed to draw attention as much as it is possible. May sound more entertaining than informative.


  • Tones: HF, FR, RFR

  • Scales: Stepping, sound weighty

  • Heads: High, climbing + LR

  • Loudness: either diminished or increased acc to the importance

  • Tempo: full of contrast

  • Pauses: unexpected pauses to draw attention



¤ Declamatory Style: used on stage, in TV studio performances, verse or prose reciting.

Description: highly emotional, still depends on the type of prose\poetry. Needs special training.




  • Tones:

  • Scales:

  • Heads: all types

  • Loudness:

  • Tempo:

  • Pauses:


Depending on the type of poetry\prose and the emotions author demonstrates


¤ Publicistic Style: Public speeches dealing with social or political problems, parliamentary debates, congress, election campaigns.

Description: rhythm is properly organized.


  • Tones: tonal contrasts

  • Scales: Stepping, sound weighty

  • Heads: broken, due to extensive use of accidental rises, high-level heads alternate with low-level heads.

  • Loudness: enormously increased or unexpectedly diminished

  • Tempo: moderately slow with important parts, faster when less imp parts.

  • Pauses: long, rhetorical silence is often used.


¤ Formal Style: TV and radio announcers, various official situations. Reading news, business tasks, weather forecasts etc.

Description: neutral, dispassionate


  • Tones: LF mostly

  • Scales: Falling or Level

  • Heads: High, climbing + LR

  • Loudness: normal or little bit high

  • Tempo: stable or slow

  • Stress: decentralized

  • Rhythm: normal and properly organized



¤ Conversational style: used in everyday life, less attention on the effect produced.

Description: relaxed


When emotionally neutral


  • Nuckeus: LF, LR

  • Heads: low, falling

  • Pre-heads: low

  • Pitch: patterns are narrowed


When more excited


  • Nucleus: HF, HR, RF

  • Scales: stepping, sliding

  • Pre-heads: higher

  • Pitch: patterns are widened

  • Accidental rises are often in use



Prosody and Punctuation


Prosody (Intonation) is a complex unity of sentence stress, rhythm, tempo, speech melody and voice timbre. Each syllable in a sense group is pronounced on a certain pitch level and bears a definite amount of loudness. Pitch movements are inseparably connected with loudness; together with the tempo of speech they form intonation patterns. Intonation patterns serve to actualize sense groups.


prosody

The systematic study of versification which covers the principles of metre, rhythm, rhyme and stanza forms; or a particular system of versification. In linguistics the term is applied to patterns of stress and intonation in ordinary human speech. Prosody in the literary sense is also known as metrics.


.

Suprasegmenatal phenomenon of sound


5 basic parameters:

pausation

pitch-movement

tempo

loudness = the attribute of a sound that determines the magnitude of the auditory sensation produced and that primarily depends on the amplitude of the sound wave involved

diapason


Full stop - lowest part of diapason and the end of the glide down into two completely different ways

LF – completeness

HF – statement with special emotional coloring


Comma - most troublesome punctuation mark.

  • Pronounciation of a sent of any length without commas

  • The pauses are the shortest

  • LR

  • Nature of grammatical relation


Semi-column - parts are not fully independent, but convey diff ideas.

  • Falling tone

  • Pauses are longer

  • Falling tone before

  • 1st w after is never pron-d in high level

  • link bw 2 diff ideas in 1 sent

  • smth diff but relevant


Column - immediately following ideas

  • Begin on high level as if a new sent

  • Pause is shorter than in full stop

  • Enumerate or repeat


Dash - a break in the narration or thought

  • Rephrasing or summarizing

  • Add an after thought

  • Indicate that sent is unfinished

  • Sudden break in a line

  • Emphatic pause

  • Sudden change in pitch


Indented line

At the beginning of a new paragraph (at the end vice verse):

  1. Longest pause

  2. pitch is lower

  3. tempo is increased slightly

  4. loudness is diminished


Double quotes

  • Long pause

  • Higher loudness

  • Lower tempo


Single quotes

  1. Unnoticeable pause

  2. Down loudness

  3. Down tempo



Brackets – additional information

  1. Low pitch level

  2. Lower loudness

  3. Higher tempo

  4. No pause


Double commas – insertions

  1. Rise tone before

  2. Fall tone after

  3. Level tone


Double dashes - prosodically important information

  • A pause to draw attention

  • No increase of loudness




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