Components of phonetic system:
3 branches of phonetics: psychological phonetics (articulatory\auditory aspects), acoustic phonetics (physical properties of producing sounds), functional phonetics (phonology).
Acc to Sokolova: acoustic, articulatory, auditory ph-cs.
Articulatory ph-cs: study, description, classification of speech sounds as regards the production.
Methods of art. Ph-cs:
Subjective – method of direct observation.
Objective – using various instrumental techniques
Components of Phonetic System in English
Articulation basis: a sum total of the general tendencies in movements and positions of organs of speech in neutral position or at rest.
Principle Types of English pronunciation
National Language – written (generally accepted standard) and spoken forms (may vary from locality to locality)
Dialect – differ in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation - dialectology, sociolinguistics
Different types of pronunciation may vary in all components of pron system.
Orphoepic norm – dialect that became standard pron. due to economical, geographical, political factors. Other dialects – illiterate, uncultural.
All national types of English pronunciation have many features in common due the common origin. And have many differences due to the different development after the separation from the GB.
^ .: 1. the eastern type (is spoken in new England, in new york city, it bears a remarkable resemblance to southern English.) 2. The southern type (used in south and south-east of usa, it possesses a striking distinctive feature – vowel drawl.) 3. general American.(is spoken in atlantic states: new york, new jersey y etc., it’s the pronunciation standard as its language is used by radio and tv.)
Phoneme may be pronounced differently in different ws but still remain the same phoneme pleat-play-wale
2 main classes of phonemes: vowels and consonants
Pairs of ws that demonstrate a phonemic contrast – minimal pairs (discovered by method of commutation)
MP – differ only in 1 element
actually pronounced sound is always an allophone
different allophones of 1 phoneme have one or more acoustic, articulatory features in common, but may have slight difference due to the adjust sounds or other purely phonetic factors.
Allophone that has all acoustic, articulatory features given in classification – a sound in isolation or the principle variant of phoneme
All others – subsidiary variants
to mix allophones – non-phonological, allophonic mistake
to mix phonemes – phonemic, phonological mistake
The two main problems:
Distributional – is based on the phonological rule, that different phonemes can occur in one and the same position, while allophones of one and the same phoneme occur in different positions (cat-rat/ cat-skate). It’s possible to establish the phonemic status of any sound just by contrasting it with the other sound without knowing the meaning of the words.
Semantic – attaches great importance to meaning. It’s based on the assumption that a phoneme can distinguish words only when opposed to another phoneme or zero in an identical phonetic context (ask”0”-asks). Pairs of words differing only in one sound are called minimal pairs.
L. Blomfield (American descriptive linguist) considered it impossible to identify the phonemes of a language without recourse to meaning in the ordinary sense of word.
Great phonemic dissimilarity – entirely or greatly different sounds, such as a vowel and a consonant cannot be allophones of the same phoneme.
Conditioned allophonic similarity – the more or less similar sounds which are at the same time more or less different, are allophones of the same phoneme if the difference between them is clearly due to the influence of purely external phonetic factors, such as neighbouring sounds, stress, etc..
monof. – vowels, pronounced in a way that during pronunciation organs of speech do not change their position
dif. – when pronouncing, organs start in the position of one vowel and gradually move to the position of other vowel. 1st vowel – nucleus, 2nd - a glide
[ei] [ai] [oi]
[iэ] [iэ] [iэ]
American dif-s [ai] [au] [oi]
Sm single out [oэ]
May be classified according to:
-position of the tongue (horizontal, neither advanced nor retrected)
-position of lips
-acc 2 length
-acc 2 degree of tenseness
Unstressed vocalism of English
Occur only in unstressed position
Can perform distinctive fs only when opposed to other unstressed vowels
Neutral ə is a core of unstressed voc of English. All allophones are known in ling as schwa vowel
Independent phonemic status of neutral vowels provided by lots of mp where schwa is opposed to other neutral vowels. [ə] – [i] \ [ə] – [ou]
Semi-weak vowels – vowels, lying between strong and neutral vowels
[o] – [ou]
careful style [o] - [o’bei]
colloquial style [ə] - [ə ‘bei]
full style [ou] – [ou’bei]
a product of partial reduction
s-w vowels are never opposed to the corresponding vowels of full-formation or neutral vowels
The system of English consonantal phonemes
English Segmental Phonemes in Writing
Language performs its function as an important medium of human inter-communication not only in oral, but also in written form. Material integument of written language is made by graphic symbols – letters and hieroglyphics.
Of the aims of phonetics is to study the connection between the oral speech and its graphical representation.
English language is known for irregularities of spelling, due to different principles of orthography.
The main principle. Represents phonemes, but not its allophones. (In some languages allophones of the same phoneme are presented by different letters – Ы-И).
The main unit of this principle – a grapheme.
It has the same functions as the phoneme:
Constitutive: written form of every word consists of graphemes.
Distinctive: written form of every word may be distinguished from that of an other by different graphemes directly (opposed sounds are represented by diff graphemes) and indirectly (graphemes differ from each other to homophones)
based on the independent of the phoneme distinctive function ……..?
great number of homophonous words sent-scent-cent
3. Historical\traditional\conservative principle
consist of preservation of such spelling that existed in early periods of language and no longer reflects the real pronunciation of words. Some letters seized to represent any phonemes because these phonemes a) seized to exist b) had dropped out from the particular ws c) letters began to represent newly developed or different phonemes
^ denoted the phoneme [h] in MidE, spelling survived even after [h] disappeared. Still it has a differentiating function – right-rite
No orthography is capable of reflecting the exact pronunciation of the language
Transcription – graphical designation of phonemes, stress etc.
Transliteration – representation of pronunciation of one language by means of other language.
“There are some words that we feel to be more adequate to express certain ideas. We feel that ‘roll’ is more adequate than ‘катать’, because the very sounding of ‘roll’ make it more expressive” (c) Otto Espreson
Ph. Symbolism is connected with poetry.
There are 3 kinds of Ph. Symbolism in poetry:
-onomatopoeia (murmur, whisper, moan)
-special sounds that are difficult to articulate, good to reflect violent moves, attacks
-sp sounds which themselves suggest mng – phonetic intensives or phonesthemes.
The accentual structure of English words
Fs: to differentiate V from N import-import
Presyntactic w combination from compound ws blackbird - black bird
Stress: musical, dynamic
In eng stress in free, in some other languages - fixed
Stress is considered from the point of view of its ^
In 2 syll ws primary stress falls on the first syllable
In 3 syll ws – on the 2nd syll
In 4 and more – on 3d from the end
Secondary stress depends on the number of syllables and the place of the primary stress.
Others – unstressed (have weak stress).
Types of sentence stress. 1.Normal (is used to arrange the sentence phonetically, to single a nuclear of the centre of the utterance – I want a blue dress) 2.Logical (when the symantic centre is shifted from the last notional word to soma other word than it’s a logical stress – the weather is nice today)3. Emphatic (stress may differ according to the degree of prominence with which the symantic sentence is pronounced, emph stress is associated with fall rise and mid and figh fall – the weather is nice today).
. Sentence-Stress and its Phonological Status
It is im"portant.
We distinguish three types of SS:
Normal Accent (Normal SS) arranges the utterance phonetically, renders the meaning and indicates the nucleus of the communicative center which in this case is associated with the last notional word.
Logical Stress presupposes the shifting of the nucleus from the last notional word in a sense group to another word which we emphasize logically.
Both Normal & Logical SS’s may be unemphatic & emphatic. Emphatic accent implies the increase of the effort of expression.
→ the syntactically distinctive function - the number of communicative centers indicates the number of intonation groups. In this case the opposition of intonation (accentuation) patterns fulfills this function.
(Do you know his schoolmate, | Harry?)
→ the semantically distinctive function – is realized in the opposition of different accentuation patterns:
You for"get yourself (Ты забываешься).
→ the attitudinally distinctive function – may be demonstrated by changing the accentuation pattern of the sentence.
What shall I do?
(If ‘shall’ is unaccented, it is an auxiliary verb – Что же делать? ; if it is the nucleus of the communicative center, it functions as a modal verb and here the meaning is changed (insistent).
→ together with pitch accent (SS) also fulfills the function of dividing a sentence into theme and rheme.
4 components of intonation: pitch, loudness, tempo (prosodic components of intonation) timbre (not recognized unanimously, according to Sokolova)
The role of intonation in speech: auditory level - realization of into in speech. Each syllable of speech has a special pitch coloring. The general function of intonation - is a communicative function. It differentiates informational content, text structure, meaning of lexical units, stylistic functions, attitude, statements\questions\commands etc.
The sense group is a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complex.
In Phonetics actualized sense groups are called intonation groups.
Intonation patterns containing a number of syllables consist of the following parts:
Nucleus+ stressed and undressed syllables. Intonation pattern serves to actualize syntagms.
Nucleus: the nucleus (the last acc.syll.) – is the most important part of the intonation pattern. A stressed syllable which has a greater prominence than the others. Generally – the last strongly accented syllable of an intonation pattern. Marks a significant change in pitch direction (distinctly up or down). Nuclear tones: low fall, high fall, low rise, high rise, fall rise, rise fall, rise fall rises.
Graphical representation of intonation:
Rhythm and tempo
Rhythm – a general term, connected with time and space. Realized in lexical, syntactical and prosodic means and their combinations: word repetition, syntactical parallelism, intensification are perceived as rhythmical on lexical, syntactical and prosodic levels.
^ depends on the language:
Syllable-timed (French, Spanish, and other Romance lang-s ) - speaker gives equal amount of time to each syllable.
Stress-timed (Germanic lang-s as English, German, Russian.) – rhythm is based on a larger unit than syllable. Stressed syllables are pronounced and equal intervals, no matter how many unstressed syllables are between them.
Speech rhythm is usually considered to be a recurrence of stressed syllables at more or less equal intervals of time in speech continuum.
Basic unit – a rhythmic group – a speech segment that contains a stressed syllable and unstressed syll-s attached to it. ^ .
Initial unstressed syllables preceding nucleus – proclitics, the following ones – enclitics.
Tempo – expresses different degrees of importance in utterance, emotional state. Tempo increases when giving highly emotional statements and slows down in less emotional state.
The choice of prosodic means depends on the purpose of utterance. The choice of style depends on extra-linguistic factors such age, occupation, sex, emotional state and purpose.
¤ Scientific Style: delivering lectures, seminars, reading aloud prose, conversations on scientific topic.
Description: highly emotional, aimed to draw attention as much as it is possible. May sound more entertaining than informative.
¤ Declamatory Style: used on stage, in TV studio performances, verse or prose reciting.
Description: highly emotional, still depends on the type of prose\poetry. Needs special training.
Depending on the type of poetry\prose and the emotions author demonstrates
¤ Publicistic Style: Public speeches dealing with social or political problems, parliamentary debates, congress, election campaigns.
Description: rhythm is properly organized.
¤ Formal Style: TV and radio announcers, various official situations. Reading news, business tasks, weather forecasts etc.
Description: neutral, dispassionate
¤ Conversational style: used in everyday life, less attention on the effect produced.
When emotionally neutral
When more excited
Prosody and Punctuation
Prosody (Intonation) is a complex unity of sentence stress, rhythm, tempo, speech melody and voice timbre. Each syllable in a sense group is pronounced on a certain pitch level and bears a definite amount of loudness. Pitch movements are inseparably connected with loudness; together with the tempo of speech they form intonation patterns. Intonation patterns serve to actualize sense groups.
The systematic study of versification which covers the principles of metre, rhythm, rhyme and stanza forms; or a particular system of versification. In linguistics the term is applied to patterns of stress and intonation in ordinary human speech. Prosody in the literary sense is also known as metrics.
Suprasegmenatal phenomenon of sound
5 basic parameters:
loudness = the attribute of a sound that determines the magnitude of the auditory sensation produced and that primarily depends on the amplitude of the sound wave involved
Full stop - lowest part of diapason and the end of the glide down into two completely different ways
LF – completeness
HF – statement with special emotional coloring
Comma - most troublesome punctuation mark.
Semi-column - parts are not fully independent, but convey diff ideas.
Column - immediately following ideas
Dash - a break in the narration or thought
At the beginning of a new paragraph (at the end vice verse):
Brackets – additional information
Double commas – insertions
Double dashes - prosodically important information
|Phonetics as a branch of linguistics||Phonetics as a branch of a language|
|1. Lexicology as a branch of linguistic study, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics & contrastive linguistics||1. Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics|
|1. The notion of stylistics. Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which deals with expressive resources and functional styles of a language. Types||Документи|
1. /American local dialects..docx
|In describing the sound-system of any language it is necessary to distinguish between speech sounds and what are called phonemes|
«keep», «cool», «call» are three distinct sounds articulated at different parts of the palate; but they are regarded as belonging...
|Theoretical grammar of the English language The system of language study|
|Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone||Semantics – the branch of lexicology which studies the perception of meaning of the words Semasiology|