1. the Composition of the Br. Isles icon

1. the Composition of the Br. Isles




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The House of Hanover were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as kings of Great Britain in 1714. They also ruled Hanover in Germany, their original possession.


Under the Act of Settlement 1701, the English (thus, the successor British) throne could only be held by a Protestant. Sophia of Hanover, the nearest such relative, thus became statutorily designated as the next heir. She died shortly before Anne, and her place was taken by her son, who thus founded the House of Hanover

To the house of H belong George I ( 1714-1727), George II (1727-1760), George III (1760-1820), George III (1760-1820), George IV (1820-1830), William IV (1830-1837), Victoria (1837-1901).


2 periods are identified:Georgian England&Victorian age. It has been said that "Life in early Georgian England was stable, placid, and self-satisfied". The Victorian Age - The period is often characterised as a long period of peace and economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation

^ George I (1714-27) was magnificently unsuited to rule England. He spoke not a word of English, and his slow, pedantic nature did not sit well with the English. One of the results of George's inability or disinterest in ruling the English was that he handed over his authority to trusted politicians. This marked the origin of the office of the Prime Minister and the cabinet system of government.

George II (1727-60) . Despite the Stuart rebellion, the years between 1720-1780 were remarkable for their social stability. The Br Museum was foun, seven Years War, Br won. Were very successful in India (East India comp)

^ George III (1760-1820) could at least speak E, but he was troubled by periods of insanity, so the last 10 years his son , future George IV actually rulled as Prince Regent. Industrial rev. George is remembered largely for the extravagant lifestyle that he maintained as prince and monarch.

^ Victoria (1837–1901) the longest reigning British monarch and the figurehead of a vast empire.She oversaw vast changes in British society


24. The House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha

(1901–17) Saxe-coburg-gotha, or Saxe-coburg And Gotha,  the royal house of the United Kingdom, which succeeded the house of Hanover on the death of its last monarch, Queen Victoria, on Jan. 22, 1901. The dynasty has included Edward VII (reigned 1901–10), George V (1910–36), Edward VIII (1936), George VI (1936–52), and Elizabeth II (1952– ). The heir apparent is Charles, Prince of Wales. The dynastic name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was that of Victoria's German-born husband, Albert, prince consort of Great Britain and Ireland.( (A prince consort, generally speaking, is the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself is a king.A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender). Their eldest son was Edward VII. During the anti-German atmosphere of World War I, George V declared by royal proclamation (July 17, 1917) that all descendants of Queen Victoria in the male line who were also British subjects would adopt the surname of “Windsor.” Their descendants succeeded to the British throne, and the country's ruling dynasty was styled the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha from 1901 until its name was changed to Windsor in 1917. Queen Eliz II's children would normally have borne their father's surname, Mountbatten (which itself had been anglicized from “Battenberg”). In 1952, soon after her accession, she declared in council that her children and descendants would bear the surname Windsor. This decision was modified (Feb. 8, 1960) to the effect that issue other than those styled prince or princess and royal highness should bear the name Mountbatten-Windsor.



^ 25. The House of Windsor

The House of Windsor, a branch of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and each of the other Commonwealth Realms. In 1917, during World War I, anti-German feeling among the people resulted in the Royal Family exchanging use of all of their German titles and house names for English-sounding versions.

The German name had come via Queen Victoria's marriage to Prince Albert, son of Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in February 1840. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, however, was not the Prince Consort's personal surname, but the territory ruled by his family; his house, and possibly even his surname, was Wettin.

Thus, the name Wettin was replaced with Windsor, which also became the name of the Royal House through an Order-in-Council of King George V (1917).

However, the Order only referred to all descendants of Queen Victoria in the male line, but not necessarily by female descendants. In April 1952, two months after her accession, Queen Elizabeth II ended confusion over the dynastic name when she declared to the Privy Council her “Will and Pleasure that I and My children shall be styled and known as the House and Family of Windsor, and that my descendants who marry and their descendants, shall bear the name of Windsor.” This comes into conflict with Germanic house laws, which state that all of her children are of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg through their father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

Later, on February 8, 1960, the Queen issued another Order-in-Council, confirming that she and her four children will be known as the House and Family of Windsor, and that her other male-line descendants (except those who are "HRH" and a Prince or Princess) will take the name "Mountbatten-Windsor

George V 1910–1936), Edward VIII 1936, George VI 1936-1952, E II 1952

+17,18 вопр

^ 26. The XVIII-century Britain
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