Classification of sentences icon

Classification of sentences



НазваниеClassification of sentences
Дата конвертации15.01.2013
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1. /prep &conj.rtf
2. /М.Я. Блох.rtf
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Prepositions and conjunctions
Object is a secondary part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a noun, a substantival pronoun, an adjective, a numeral, or an adverb, and denoting a thing to which the action passes on,
33. Adverb The adverb is one of the parts of speech established in antiquity. In the grammar of English and other Indo-European languages, the adverb is a word denoting a non-substantive property,
The Adverbial Modifier
The problem of the attribute
Б. 1вопр The general characteristics of sentence
14. Morphemic structure of the word
Б. 2вопр Parts of speech
Classification of sentences
Б вопр Noun as a part of speech
Simple sentence
13. The category of case
16. Complex Sentences
Complex sentence
Article is a determining unit of a specific nature accompanying the noun in communicative collocation
29. Compound sentence
11. The Main and Secondary Parts of a Sentence
Syntactical functions
General characteristics of a verb
32. Functional Sentence Perspective. (= Ads)
Category of Tense
Difference between correlation and correctivity
11. The Main and Secondary Parts of a Sentence

Classification of sentences

1. According to structural features: simple and composite; two-member and one- member sentences. Elliptical and one-member sentences:

e.g. Marvelous! Horrible! How very interesting!

e.g. No birds singing at the dawn (Strong resemblance to 2 member sentences).

e.g. I saw him there. Yesterday (parselation).

2. According to the purpose of the utterance: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory, ? optative. Prof.Ilyish: before dividing sentences into 3 classes we should divide them into emotional and non-emotional and within emotional we can establish 4 classes.

The strictly declarative sentence immediately expresses a certain proposition, that is why the actual division of the declarative sentence presents itself in the most developed and complete form. The rheme of the declarative sentence makes up the center of some statement as such.

The strictly imperative sentence does not express any statement or fact, i.e. any proposition proper. It is only based on a proposition, without formulating it directly. Namely, the proposition underlying the imperative sentence is reversely contrasted against the content of the expressed inducement. It is so because an urge to do something (i.e. affirmative inducement) is based on a supposition that something is not done. An urge not to do something (i.e. negative inducement) is founded on the supposition that something is done or may be done. E.g Don’t talk about them (They talk about them). Thus, the rheme of the imperative sentence expresses the informative nucleus not of an explicit proposition, but of an inducement – a wanted or unwanted action.

The actual division of the strictly interrogative sentences is uniquely different from declarative and imperative sentences. It expresses an inquiry about information which the speaker does not possess. Therefore the rheme of the interrogative sentence, as the nucleus of the inquiry, is informationally open (gaping). Its function consists only in marking the rhematic position in the response sentence and programming the content of the rheme in accord with the nature of the inquiry. The thematic part of the answer is usually zeroed since it’s already expressed in the question: e.g. How are you? – Fine, thanks.




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