1. 3 subgroups of Germanic lang-s, their phonemic features icon

1. 3 subgroups of Germanic lang-s, their phonemic features



Название1. 3 subgroups of Germanic lang-s, their phonemic features
Дата конвертации14.01.2013
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1. /История языка/1.2 groups of GL, 1stCSH, Verner's Law.doc
2. /История языка/10.National Variants of the EL.doc
3. /История языка/11.AE - Grammar.doc
4. /История языка/12.AE - Spelling&Voc.doc
5. /История языка/13.Sources of OE SD.doc
6. /История языка/14.I-Mutation.doc
7. /История языка/15.Qualititive Changes.doc
8. /История языка/16.Quantitative Changes.doc
9. /История языка/17.Dating,Direction&Causes of the Shift.doc
10. /История языка/18.The GVS and its Interpretation.doc
11. /История языка/19Vocalisation of R.doc
12. /История языка/2.Basic Gram.Feaures of GLs, Alphabet.doc
13. /История языка/20Leng-ng and sh-ing ch-s of Vs in EModE.doc
14. /История языка/22The OE System of Consonants and Their Changes.doc
15. /История языка/23Consonant changes MidE.doc
16. /История языка/25.Consonant Fusion in EME.doc
17. /История языка/26.Voicing of consonants EModE.doc
18. /История языка/27. Simplification of consonant clusters in Mid n EModE.doc
19. /История языка/28. Norman Scribes.doc
20. /История языка/29 System of OE Ns, 3 essential types of their declantion.doc
21. /История языка/29. Principles of Orthography.doc
22. /История языка/29. Traditions of spelling (vowels).doc
23. /История языка/3.Invasion.OE dialects&writings.doc
24. /История языка/30.OE SV 1-3.doc
25. /История языка/31. OE SV 4-7.doc
26. /История языка/32.Changes of SV.doc
27. /История языка/33. Weak Verbs.doc
28. /История языка/33.The system of Peronal Pronouns.doc
29. /История языка/34.PretPresent&Irregular.doc
30. /История языка/36.Changes in the Substantive.doc
31. /История языка/39.Demonstrative Pronouns.doc
32. /История языка/4.Periodization.doc
33. /История языка/40.Adjective&Adverb.doc
34. /История языка/41.Articles.doc
35. /История языка/42 Grammatical categories of the OE verbs.doc
36. /История языка/43 1 memb indef pers sent.doc
37. /История языка/43. Two memb sent.doc
38. /История языка/44.Word-Order.doc
39. /История языка/45.No, Inter, Exclam Sentence.doc
40. /История языка/47.One memb sent.doc
41. /История языка/48.Future tense.doc
42. /История языка/48.Voice.doc
43. /История языка/49. Perfect aspect.doc
44. /История языка/49.Imperative sent.doc
45. /История языка/5.Scandinavian Conquest.doc
46. /История языка/50.Continuous aspect.doc
47. /История языка/51.Vocalisation of Fricatives.doc
48. /История языка/6.Norman Concquest.doc
49. /История языка/7.The Rise of the NEL.doc
50. /История языка/8.Linguistic Principles.doc
51. /История языка/Am pronunciation.doc
1. 3 subgroups of Germanic lang-s, their phonemic features
10. National Variants of the el (excluding ae)
9. Peculiar Features of American English in Grammar
10. Peculiar Features of ae in spelling and vocabulary
11. The Sources and Phonetic Status of the oe short Diphongs
12 i-mutation and lengthening changes of oe vowels
15. Qualitative changes of vowels
13. Quantitative changes of vowels in oe
18. Dating, direction & causes of the gvs
17. The Great Vowel Shift and its Phonemic Interpretation
Vocalisation of r and its phonetic consequences
2. Basic Grammatical Features of Germanic Lang-s
The rise of long monophthongs: 1 In the 15th century [a]>[эе
The oe system of Consonants and Their Changes Ɵ(three) Ơ(that)
Consonant changes in the MidE period 1 Change in the phonetic status of fricatives
Fusion of consonant clusters with /j/ in emodE
Another systematic change of the emodE period is voicing of consonants
25 Simplification of consonant clusters in Mid and emodE
Traditions of english spelling (consonants)
Strong d. Stem suffix was represented by a vowel a-, -ja-, -wa Masculine, neuter ō-, -jō-, -wō Feminine I- m, N, f u- m, f weak d
Essential Princip
Traditions of english spelling (vowels)
3. Invasion of Germanic Tribes and the Beginning of the el
Strong verbs Used for
Strong verbs Used for
36. Changes in the system of strong verbs in Mid and emodE
The system of oe weak verbs and their further changes
33. The system of personal pronouns and their historical developnent
Preterate Present and Irregular Verbs in their historical development
30. Changes in n declension during the Mid and emod periods
32. History of the demonstrative pronouns
4. Approaches towards the Periodization of the History of English
1. adv-s of place hwr где, hwanan откуда, Ђanan оттуда
History of the articles
Grammatical categories of the oe verbs and their further changes
In oe indefinite subject was expressed with the help of the indefinite pronoun which developed from the noun ‘men’ and in oe it had forms ‘men, me, man, mon’
Two-member simple sent in oe were represented by 3 structural patterns
History of negative sentences,interrogative,exclamatory
There were 3 types of one-member sentences and in all of them the head word was expressed by the verb in finite form. The first type was impersonal sent
History of future tense
State resulting from a certain action; “weorpan + Participle 2” expressed the transition
+ Participle They could express the completion of action by certain moment
They have retained their syntactic structure unchanged through all the periods of English but in oe there were two forms of number in Imperative Mood sing and plur
5. The Scandinavian Conquest
It established itself in the language later than Perfect Aspect, Passive Voice or Future Tense while the Continuous Aspect became regular only in Early ModE
16. Vocalisation of fricatives
6 The Norman Conquest and its linguistic consequences
7. The Rise of the National English Language
8. The Earliest linguistic principles in the History of the el and their objectives
Ε (before /r/ flurry)

1. 3 subgroups of Germanic lang-s, their phonemic features.

English belongs to the group of Germanic lang-s which may part in the vast family of Indo-European lang-s.

Germanic lang-s, on the one hand, have a number of distinctive features uniting them into the group of related lang-s. On the other hand, the same distinctive feature differentiate Germ lang-s from other Indo-european lang-s.

Germanic lang-s are subdivided into 3 groups:

1. East- Germ ( Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian)

2. West – Germ ( Engl, Germ, Dutch, Frisian, Judish, Africans)

3. North – Germ (Swedish, Norwegian, Islandic, Danish)

An essential feature of GLs separating them from other IE lang-s is their consonant system, which developed from the original IE system of consonants due to the flg changes: p-f, k-h, b-p, d-t, g-k.

These regular correspondences between the consonants of Germanic and those of other IE lang-s were discovered and systemized by the Danish scholar R.Rask and the german linguist J.Grimm, so the system of consonant correspondences is known as Grimm’s law, but usually it’s called the 1st Cons Shift.

After these 3 stages of cons shift a great number of words of the common IE stock changed their pronunciation in Germanic lang-s. At the same time, there were some words in GLs, and they were not few, which would not fit into the correspondences of the 1st Cons Shift.Thus, instead of an expected voiceless fricative, there would appear a voiced stop. These seeming irregularities were explained by the Danish scholar Karl Verner, so the theory is known as Verner’s Law.

Verner’s Law.

Verner’s Law reads as follows: if an IE voiceless stop was preceded by an unstressed vowel, the voiceless fricative which developed from it in accordance with the 1st Cons Shift became voiced and later this voiced fricative developed into a voiced stop. ( greek “dekas” – goth “tigus”).

S-Z is the principal. Later z-r – rhotacism.

In the word-changing paradigm of notional parts of speech certain forms might bear the results of Verner’s Law, while other’s had none, and thus grammatical alternation of cons-s arose, for ex, wesan- ws - wron.

The cons pairs involved into gram-l alteration were: f/b, /d, s/r.




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