1. Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics icon

1. Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics



Название1. Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics
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1.Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics.

Phonetics studies the sound system of the language. That is segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic structure and intonation. The first phoneticians were Indians.

Phonetics has two main divisions:

  1. study of the sound patterns of language

  2. study of substance

Stages of human speech are:

  • Sociological

  • Physiological

  • Reception

  • Transmission

  • Interpretation

The brunch of phonetics that studies the way is called articulator phonetics.

Acoustic phonetics studies the air vibrates between the speaker mouth and the listening ear.

Auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived by the brain.




^ 2.Phonology and its subject matter. Standard English (RP).

The brunch of phonetics that studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic structure, word accent and prosodic pitches, stress and tempo is called phonology.

An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive units within a language. And phonology studies how sounds alternate.

Received Pronunciation (or RP) is a special accent - a regionally neutral accent that is used as a standard for broadcasting and some other kinds of public speaking. It is not fixed - you can hear forms of RP in historical broadcasts, such as newsreel films from the Second World War. Queen Elizabeth II has an accent close to the RP of her own childhood, but not very close to the RP of the 21st century.

RP excites powerful feelings of admiration and repulsion. Some see it as a standard or the correct form of spoken English, while others see its use (in broadcasting, say) as an affront to the dignity of their own region. Its merit lies in its being more widely understood by a national and international audience than any regional accent. Non-native speakers often want to learn RP, rather than a regional accent of English. RP exists but no-one is compelled to use it. But if we see it as a reference point, we can decide how far we want to use the sounds of our region where these differ from the RP standard.




^ 3.The organs of speech and their work. The active and passive organs of speech.

Organs of speech are: nasal cavity, lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, larynx, palate (soft and hard), uvula, tongue (tip, blade, front, back), epiglottis, pharynx, vocal cords, and trachea.

The air stream released by the lungs goes through the wind­pipe and comes to the larynx, which contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords are two elastic folds which may be kept apart or brought together. The opening between them is called the glottis. If the tense vocal cords are brought together, the air stream forcing an opening makes them vibrate and we hear some voice.

On coming out of the larynx the air stream passes through the pharynx.

The pharyngal cavity extends from the top of the larynx to the soft palate, which directs the air stream either to the mouth or nasal cavities, which function as the principal resonators.

The soft palate is the furthest part of the palate from the teeth. Most of the palate is hard. This hard and fixed part of the palate is divided into two sections: the hard palate (the highest part of the palate) and the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge.

The most important organ of speech is the tongue. Pho­neticians divide the tongue into four sections, the part which lies opposite the soft palate is called the back of the tongue; the part facing the hard palate is called the front; the one lying under the teeth ridge is known as the blade and its extremity the t i p .

The lips can take up various positions as well. They can be brought firmly together or kept apart neutral, rounded, or pro­truded forward.

Active organs of speech are movable and taking an active part in a sound formation:

  1. Vocal cords which produce voice

  2. The tongue which is the most flexible movable organ

  3. The lips affective very considerably the shape of the mouth cavity

  4. The soft palate with the uvula directing the stream of air either to the mouth or to the nasal cavity

  5. The back wall of the faring contracted for some sounds

  6. The lower jaw which movement controls the gap between the teeth and also the disposition of the lips

  7. The lungs air for sounds

Passive organs of speech:

  1. the teeth

  2. the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge

  3. the hard palate

  4. the walls of the resonators




^ 4.The International Phonetic Alphabet (transcription)

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by linguists, speech pathologists and therapists, foreign language teachers and students, singers, actors, lexicographers, and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech such as tooth-gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft palate, an extended set of symbols called the Extended IPA is used.

The International Phonetic Alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible. The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonants taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to “international usage”.

Transcription is accent of symbols representing speech sounds.

The first type of notation is the broad of phonemic notation; it provides special symbols for all phonemes of a language.

The second type of the allophonic transcription, suggests special symbols including some information about articulator activity of particular allophonic features.

The first of broad transcription was introduced by D. Jones. He realized the difference between sounds (sit – seat). Another type of broad transcription was introduced by Vasiliev.




^ 5.Letters and sounds. Sounds and phonemes. Vowels and consonants.

Letters and sounds must never be mixed up. Letters are written, sounds are spoken. It very useful to have written letters to remind us of corresponding sounds, but this is all they do. They cannot make us pronounce sounds which we don’t already know; they simply remind us. In ordinary English spelling is not always easy to know what sounds the letters stand for. We have 24 consonants and 20 vowels to consider.

Speech sounds are grouped into language units called phonemes. A phoneme may be thought of as the smallest contrastive language unit which exists in the speech of all people be­longing to the same language community in the form of speech sounds and may bring about a change of meaning.

The phoneme is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds of different type. Various speech realizations of the phoneme are called its allophones.

The organs of speech are capable of uttering many different kinds of sounds. From the practical point of view it is convenient to distinguish two types of speech sounds: vowels and conso­nants. Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any ob­struction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. In the articulation of consonants a kind of noise producing obstruction is formed in the supra-glottal cav­ities. Such sounds may be pronounced with or without vocal cords vibration.




^ 6.Principles of classification of English consonants.

Consonants are made with air stream that meets an obstruc­tion in the mouth or nasal cavities. That is why in the produc­tion of consonant sounds there is a certain degree of noise.

Consonants are the bones of a word and give it its basic shape. English accents differ mainly in vowels, the consonants are more or less the same wherever English is spoken. So if your vowels are not perfect you may still be understood by the listen­er, but if the consonants are imperfect there may be some misun­derstanding.

The sentence "W-l y- -nv-t- m-1- th- p-t-?" "Will you invite me to the party?" is easy for understanding even if all the vowel letters would be left out. But if we leave all the consonant letters out : "-i- -ou i—i-e -e -o —e -a-y" it is impossible to make any sense out of it.

On the articulatory level the consonants change:

  1. In the degree of noise.

  2. In the manner of articulation.

  3. In the place of articulation.




^ 7.Classification of English consonants according to the manner of articulation. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and way of correcting them.

The manner of articulation of consonants is determined by the type of obstruction. The obstructions may be complete, in­complete and momentary. When the obstruction is complete the organs of speech are in contact and the air stream meets a clo­sure in the mouth or nasal cavities as in the production of the English [p, b, t, d, k, g, tf, dj, m , n, n] .

In case of an incomplete obstruction the active organ of .speech moves towards the point of articulation and the air stream goes through the narrowing between them as in the production of the English [f, v, s, z, d, h, w, l, r, j] and the Rus­sian [ф, ф']. Momentary obstructions are formed in the production of the Russian sono­rants [p, p'] when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge.

According to the manner of articulation consonants may be of four groups:

  1. Occlusive.

  2. Constrictive.

  3. Occlusive-constrictive (affricates).

  4. Rolled.

1.Occlusive consonants are sounds in the production which the air stream meets a complete obstruction in mouth.

Occlusive voiced consonants are: the English [b, d, g].

Occlusive voiceless consonants are: the English [p, t, k|.

2.Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction in the resonator, so the air passage is constricted. Both noise consonants and sonorants may be constrictive.

Constrictive noise consonants are called fricatives.

The English fricatives: [f, v, s, z, h].

The English voiced fricatives: [v, d, z, 3].

The English voiceless fricatives: [f, s, h].

3.Occlusive-constrictive consonants or affricates are noise consonant sounds produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction. There are only two occlusive-constrictives in English: [tf,dz] . The English [dz] is voiced and weak; [tf] is voiceless and strong .

4.Rolled consonants are sounds pronounced with periodical momentary obstructions when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge and vibrates in the air stream. (They are the Russian [p, p']).




^ 8.Classification of English consonants according to the place of articulation. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and way of correcting them.

The place of articulation is determined by the active organ of speech against the point of articulation. There may be one place of articulation or focus, or two places of articulation or foci when active organs of speech contact with two points of articulation. In the first case consonants are called unicentral, in the second they are bicentral.

According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of articulation consonants may be:

1. Labial

2. Lingual

3. Glottal

Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be bilabial and labio-dental. Bilabial consonants are produced when both lips are active: [p, b,m, w].

Labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth: [f, v].

Lingual consonants are classified into forelingual, mediolingual and backlingual.

Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue. According to its work they may be:

apical, if the tip of the tongue is active [t, d, s, z, tf, n, l].

cacuminal, if the tip of the tongue is at the back part of the teeth ridge, but a depression is formed in the blade of the tongue as [r].According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be: interdental, dental., alveolar, post-alveolar., palato-alveolar.

Interdental consonants are made with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth: the English [ð, Ө].

Dental consonants are produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth.

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip against the upper teeth ridge: the English [t, d, s, z, n, 1].

Post-alveolar consonants are made when the tip or the blade of the tongue is against the back part of the teeth ridge or just behind it: the English [r].

Palato-alveolar consonants are made with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge and the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate, thus having two places of articulation.





9. Modification of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Types of assimilation. Assimilative changes of the place of obstruction and the active organs of speech, changes in the work of the vocal cords (voicing/devoicing), the lip position, the position of the soft palate, and the manner of releasing plosives (incomplete, nasal, lateral plosives)

In connected speech the sounds are subjected, in general, to two main types of influence: the reciprocal influence of neighboring sounds and the influence on sounds by larger speech units and their elements, first of all — by the stress. The first group of processes is called the combinative changes, the second group — the positional changes.

Assimilation is a process of alteration of speech sounds as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partially simi­lar to the adjoining sound.

Types of assimilation can be distinguished according to: direction, degree of completeness, degree of stability.

^ Modification of the place of obstruction and the active organs of speech: Assimilation may take place within a word and also at word boundaries. The following three important cases should be noticed:

(a) The alveolar allophones of [t, d, n, 1, s, z] are replaced by the dental variants when immediately followed by the interden­tal [ð] or [Ө], eg

within a word: eighth, breadth, tenth; at word boundaries: Put that down! Read this!, on the desk

(b)The post-alveolar [t] and [d] are heard before the post-alveolar sonorant [r], eg

within a word: trip, true, trunk, dream, drink; at word boundaries: at rest, would read.

(c)The bilabial nasal [m] or the alveolar nasal [n] become labio-dental under the influence of immediately following labio-­dental fricatives [f, v], eg

within a word: triumph, comfort, infant; at word boundaries: come for me, ten forks.

^ Changes in the work of the vocal cords (voicing/devoicing):

Progressive voicing or devoicing is common in English .

(a) The sonorants [m, n, 1, w, r] are partially devoiced when preceded by voiceless consonants [s, p, t, k, f,].

At word boundaries the sonorants [1, r, w] are slightly voiced if with the adjacent words they form a phrasal word or a rhyth­mic group, eg at last, at rest.

(b)Contracted forms of the verbs "is" and "has" may retain voice or be devoiced depending on the preceding consonants.

(c)The assimilative voicing or devoicing of the possessive suffix -'s or -s', the plural suffix -(e)s of nouns and of the third person singular present indefinite of verbs depends on the quali­ty of the preceding consonant.

(d) The assimilative voicing or devoicing of the suffix -ed of regular verbs also depends on the quality of the preceding con­sonant.

^ Changes in the Lip Position. Consonants followed by the sonorant [w] change their lip-position. They become lip-rounded in anticipation of [w], eg twinkle, quite, swan, language.

Changes in the Position of the Soft Palate. Nasal conso­nants may influence the adjacent plosive. Sometimes [d] changes into [n] , eg handsome, handmade.

Changes in the Manner of the Release of Plosive Conso­nants. English plosives do not always have the third stage con­sisting of a sudden oral release of air. The main variants are:

(a) ^ Incomplete plosion.

In the clusters of two plosives [pp, pb, bb, bp, tt, td, dd, dt,, kk, kg, gg, gk] where the position of the organs of speech is the same for both consonants, there is no separation of the organs of speech between the two plosives.

(b)Nasal plosion.

When a plosive is followed by the syllabic [n] or [m] it has no release of its own, the so-called 'nasal' plosion is produced.

(c)^ Lateral plosion.

In the sequences of a plosive immediately followed by [1] the closure produced for the plosive is not released till after [1]. Be­fore [1] the release is made by a sudden lowering of the sides of the tongue, and the air escapes along the sides of the tongue with lateral plosion, eg please, cattle, black, candle.




^ 10. Principles of classification of English vowels. Modification of English vowels in connected speech. Reduction.

Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no closure or narrowing in the mouth, pharyngal and nasal cavi­ties. That is why in the production of vowel sounds there is no noise component characteristic of consonantal sounds.

On the articulatory level the description of vowels notes changes:

  1. in the stability of articulation,

  2. in the tongue position,

  3. in the lip position,

  4. in the character of the vowel end.

Stability of Articulation. All English vowels are divided into three groups: pure vowels or monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.

Tongue Positions. The changes in the position of the tongue determine largerly the shape of the mouth and pharyngal cavities. The tongue may move forward and backward, up and down, thus changing the quality of vowel sounds.

^ Lip Position. The shape of the mouth cavity is also largely dependent on the position of the lips. When the lips are neutral or spread the vowels are termed unrounded.

Character of Vowel End. The quality of all English monophthongs in the stressed position is strongly affected by the following consonant of the same syllable. If a stressed vowel is followed by a strong voiceless consonant it is cut off by it. In this case the end of the vowel is strong and the vowel is called checked. Such vowels are heard in stressed closed syllables ending in a strong voiceless consonant, eg better, cart.

Reduction is a historical process of weakening, short­ening or disappearance of vowel sounds in unstressed positions. Reduction reflects the process of lexical and grammatical changes. Reduction is closely connected not only with word stress but also with rhythm and sentence stress.

Reduction is realized:

  1. in unstressed syllables within words

  2. in unstressed form-words, auxiliary and modal verbs, per­sonal and possessive pronouns within intonation groups and phrases.

Three different types of reduction are noticed in English.

1. Quantitative reduction, i.e. shortening of a vowel sound in the unstressed position, affects mainly long vowels

2. Qualitative reduction, i.e. obscuration of vowels to­wards [a, i, o], affects both long and short vowels

Vowels in unstressed form-words in most cases undergo both quantitative and qualitative reduction

3. The third type is the elision of vowels in the unstressed position




11.Classification of English vowels according to the stability of articulation. Monophthongs. Diphthongoids. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and ways of correcting them.

Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no closure or narrowing in the mouth, pharyngal and nasal cavi­ties. That is why in the production of vowel sounds there is no noise component characteristic of consonantal sounds.

According to the stability of articulation there are 3 groups of vowels: monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.

Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. The quality of such vowels is relatively pure. Most Russian vowels are monophthongs. The English monophthongs are: [i, e, ae, a, o, o:, u, , a].

In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syl­lable. The starting point, the nucleus, is strong and distinct. The glide which shows the direction of the quality change is very weak. In fact diphthongs consist of two clearly perceptible vowel elements. There are no diphthongs in Russian. The English diph­thongs are: [ei, ai, oi, au,, ie].

In the pronunciation of diphthongoids the articula­tion is slightly changing but the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct as it is in the case of diph­thongs. There are two diphthongoids in English: [i:, u:]. The ini­tial "o" may serve as an example of a Russian diphthongoid, eg очень.



^ 12.Classification of English vowels according to the stability of articulation. Diphthongs. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and ways of correcting them.

Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no closure or narrowing in the mouth, pharyngal and nasal cavi­ties. That is why in the production of vowel sounds there is no noise component characteristic of consonantal sounds.

According to the stability of articulation there are 3 groups of vowels: monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.

Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. The quality of such vowels is relatively pure. Most Russian vowels are monophthongs. The English monophthongs are: [i, e, ae, a, o, o:, u, a].

In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syl­lable. The starting point, the nucleus, is strong and distinct. The glide which shows the direction of the quality change is very weak. In fact diphthongs consist of two clearly perceptible vowel elements. There are no diphthongs in Russian. The English diph­thongs are: [ei, ai, oi, au,, ie].

In the pronunciation of diphthongoids the articula­tion is slightly changing but the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct as it is in the case of diph­thongs. There are two diphthongoids in English: [i:, u:]. The ini­tial "o" may serve as an example of a Russian diphthongoid, eg очень.




^ 13.Strong and weak forms of words. Cases when prepositions, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal and possessive pronouns have full (strong) forms.

Spoken English shows a marked contrast between its stressed and unstressed syllables. Words which bear the major part of information are generally stressed and are called content words. These are: nouns, adjectives, notional verbs, adverbs, numerals, interrogative and demonstrative pro­nouns. The other words in a sentence are mostly form words which link the content words and help us in this way to form an utterance. They are: articles, prepositions, conjunctions, particles, and also auxiliary and modal verbs, per­sonal and possessive pronouns. These are not many in number but they are among the commonest words of the language.

Prepositions have their strong forms though they might re­main unstressed:

(a) at the very end of an intonation group or phrase, eg ^ What are you looking at?

(b) at the end of an intonation group or phrase when they are followed by the unstressed pronoun. Monosyllabic prepositions are either stressed or not, according to the rhythmic pattern of the phrase, eg I’m not talking to you.

Auxiliary and modal verbs have their strong forms:

(a) at the end of an intonation group or a phrase whether stressed or not, eg Who has done it? Mary has. Are you free? I am.

(b) At the beginning of general and alternative questions in careful colloquial style, while in rapid colloquial style they are unstressed and reduced, eg ^ Can you get it by tomorrow?, but: Have you got any matches?

(c) In contracted negative forms, eg 1 don't know the man.

The following form-words should be remembered as having no weak forms whatsoever: what, where, when, how, which, on, in, with, then.

The verb to have used as a content verb in the meaning of 'to possess' has no weak forms (whether stressed or not) though often unstressed, eg / have a liftle brother.

The demonstrative pronoun that is never reduced while the conjunction that is, eg / know that, but: / know that he is here.

Neither are reduced the absolute forms of possessive pro­nouns, eg. The ball-pen is mine.

All the form-words, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal and possessive pronouns are generally stressed and consequently have their strong forms in case they become the logical centres of phrases, eg I'm speaking of your work, not of your sister's.




^ 14. Syllabic structure of words. Syllable formation and syllable division.

A syllable is a speech unit consisting of a sound or a sound sequence one of which is heard to be more prominent than the others. The most prominent sound being the peak or the nucleus of a syllable is called syllabic. Syllabic sounds are generally vowels and sonorants. The latter become syllabic when joined to a preceding consonant. A syllabic sonorant is marked by the sign [,].

A word consisting of only one vowel sound represents a separate syllable. In the case of a diphthong the peak of the syllable is formed by its nucleus.

Many words in English such as parcel, level, special, person and the like could be pronounced with the neutral vowel before the sonorant thus making it non-syllabic.

In all these words the second prominent sound or the peak is formed by [a] corresponding to some vowel letter in an un­stressed position before the sonorant.

On the other hand many words having a vowel-letter before the neutral vowel final sonorant are pronounced without the neutral vowel, where by the sonorant is syllabic, eg garden; lesson; pupil.

If a sonorant is preceded by a vowel sound it loses its syllabic character and the syllable is formed by the vowel.

Syllable formation and syllable division rules appear to be a matter of great practical value to the language learner. They are especially important when it is necessary to know the number of syllables for the purpose of picturing a word or a sentence on the staves, or for finding a convenient place to put a stress mark in phonetic transcription.

In most general terms syllable division rules can be defined as follows:

(1)An intervocalic consonant tends to belong to the follow­ing syllabic sound, eg about; writing.

(2) Intervocalic combinations of consonants belong to the fol­lowing syllabic sound, if such combinations are typical of Eng­lish, eg naturally.




^ 15.The accentual structure of English words. Primary and secondary accent. Functions of the word stress. The basic rules of English word accentuation.

In English there are three degrees of word stress: stressed syllables (primary stress), half-stressed syllables (secondary stress) and weak or unstressed syllables. A large group of polysyllabic simple words bear both the primary and the secondary stresses, eg ,conver'sation.

There are several large groups of words in English with two equally strong stresses. These words consist of two morphemes. The use of the second strong stress is caused by the semantic significance of both equally stressed elements of the word, eg 're'write, 'fourteen.

Word stress in English as well as in Russian is free, in the sense that the primary stress is not tied to any particular syllable in all the words. But it always falls on a particular syllable of any given word.

The secondary stress is manifested in polysyllabic words with the primary stress on the third or on the fourth syllable from the beginning, eg popularity, responsibility.

In words with the primary stress on the third syllable the secondary stress usually falls on the first syllable, eg ,deco'ration.

If the primary stress falls on the fourth or fifth syllable the secondary stress is very commonly on the second syllable, eg ar,ticu'lation, experimentation.

Consequently the position of the secondary stress is often that of the primary stress in the original word, i.e. in the word from which the derivative word is formed, cf 'possible ,possi'bility, appreciate ap,preci'ation.

In some cases the position of the secondary stress is connect­ed with the type of the suffix which can influence the accentual pattern. But there is still no good ground for establishing regular rules in this case.

To avoid making accentual mistakes it is necessary to the learner to know the basic rules of English words:

  1. In most disyllabic word the accent falls of the initial syllabic

  2. In the disyllabic words with a prefix which has lost its meaning the stress falls on the second syllable that is to say on a rood syllable (become).

  3. In disyllabis words ending in –aty, -ise, -ize, -ly the stress falls on the last syllable (dictate, surprise)

  4. In most word in 3 or 4 syllables the accent falls on the 3 syllable from the end of tne word (family)

  5. The accent on the 3 syllable from the end is especially typical of polysyllabic word with the suffix (recognize) –ize, -ly, -ate. The accent falls on the3 syllabic from the end of the word before the following suffixes:

  • logy (psychology), -logist ( biologist)

  • graphy ( geography), -grapher (geographer)

  • cracy (democracy)

The accent falls on the 2 second syllable from the end of the word:

  • ian (physician)

  • unce ( experience)

  • ient ( expedient)

  • cient (efficient)

  • al (parental)

  • ial (essential)

  • ual ( habitual)

  • eores ( courage)

  • ious (delicious)

  • iar (familiar)

The accent falls on the final syllable formed by the following suffixes:

  • ee (refuge – refugee/ employ – employee)

  • eer ( engine – engineer)

  • esque (picture – picturesque)




^ 16.Intonation and its components. The intonation group. Terminal tones.

The information conveyed by a sentence is expressed not only by proper words and grammar structures, but also by intonation. The term intonation implies variations of pitch, force of utterance and tempo. Variations of pitch are produced by significant moves of the voice up and down. The force, component of intonation is measured by the degree of loudness of syllables that determines the prominence of words. The tempo is determined by the rate of speech and the length of pauses.

Intonation is based on its two functions: the constitutive function, the distinctive function.

^ The Constitutive Function. Intonation forms sentences. Each sentence consists of one or more intonation groups.

An intonation group is a word or a group of words characterized by a certain intonation pattern and is generally complete from the point of view of meaning, eg: He's nearly sixty. (As a - matter of fact | he's - nearly sixty).

The intonation pattern consists of one or more syllables of various pitch levels and bearing a larger or smaller degree of prominence. Those intonation patterns that contain a number of syllables consist of the following parts: the pre-head, the head, the nucleus and the tail. The pre-head includes unstressed and half-stressed syllables preceding the head. Thehead con­sists of the syllables beginning with the first stressed syllable up to the last stressed syllable. The last stressed syllable is called the nucleus. The unstressed and half-stressed syllables that follow the nucleus are called the tail. Thus in the example They don't 'make so much fuss about it. ('Then' is the pre-head, 'don't make so much' is the head, 'fuss' is the nucleus, 'about it', is the tai)l.

The changes of pitch that take place in the nucleus are called nuclear tones. The nuclear syllable is generally the most prominent one in the intonation pattern. The nucleus and the tail form the terminal tone. It is the most significant part of the intonation group.

The modification of the intonation pattern is also due to the speed of utterance and pausation. We must point out in conclusion that of the three components of the intonation pattern pitch is the most significant one.

Timbre, a special colouring of human voice, is sometimes considered to be the fourth component of intonation. But as it has not been thoroughly investigated yet we shall exclude it from the description of intonation in this book.

The Distinctive Function. Intonation also serves to distinguish communicative types of sentences, the actual meaning of a sentence, the speaker's emotions or attitudes to the contents of the sentence, to the listener or to the topic of conversation. One and the same word sequence may express different meaning when pronounced with a different intonation pattern.




^ 17.Sentence stress. Types of sentence stress. Notation of stresses and tunes in the text.

In a sentence or an intonation group some of the words are greater importance than the others. This largely depends on the situation or context. Words which provide most of the information are brought out in speech by means of sentence-stress. Thus sentence stress is a special prominence given to one or more words according to their relative importance in a sentence.

The main function of sentence-stress is to single out the communicative centre of the sentence which introduces new information. The prominence is realized by variations of pitch, force, length and quality. The syllables of the words marked by sentence-stress are pronounced with possible changes in pitch, greater force, greater length of vowels and their full quality, that is the stressed words are pronounced more distinctly. The most prominent part of a sentence is the last stressed word which takes the nuclear tone.

The adjoining unstressed words are called proclitics when they precede the stressed words and enclitics when they follow the stressed words.

The distribution of stresses in a sentence depends on the mantic value of words and is closely connected with the lexical and grammatical structure of the sentence.

There are differentiate three types of sentence-stress:

  1. normal (or syntactical) sentence-stress,

  2. logical sentence-stress,

  3. emphatic sentence-stress.

1. Normal stress affects content words which convey the necessary information to the listener, eg: We have plenty of time.

Normal sentence-stress is used to arrange words into sentences or intonation groups phonetically.

2. The position of the last sentence-stress determines the place of the nucleus of the communicative centre. By shifting the position of the last stress we can change the place of the nucleus of the communicative centre, eg: Nelly 'spoke to him yesterday.

Logically different messages are expressed in the given sentences. Each shifting of the stress modifies the meaning of the sentence.

3. Most human utterances express not only the speaker's thoughts, but also his feelings and attitudes to reality and to the contents of the sentence. Both normal and logical stresses can be unemphatic or emphatic. Emphatic stress increases the effort of expression. It may strengthen the stressed word making it still more prominent. Emphatic stress manifests itself mainly on the High Fall or the Rise-Fall of the nuclear syllable. Emphatic stress is a powerful expressive means. It is the highest degree of logical and emotional prominence of words in a phrase.








^ 18. The usage of tunes in statements, different types of questions, commands, exclamations.

Ststements

1.Statements are most widely used with the Low (Medium) Fall preceded by the Falling Head or the High (Medium) Level Head. In all these cases they are final, complete and definite, eg: It's difficult. (No Head) I wanted to go there immediately. (F. H. + L. F.) It was not so easy. (H. L. H.)

2..If the statement is intended to be soothing or encouraging the last stressed syllable is pronounced either with the Low Rise or the Mid-Level nuclear tones usually preceded by the Falling or the High (Medium) Level Heads, eg It's all right.

3..If the statement is a grumble it is pronounced with Low Head + Low Fall, eg: I didn't expect to see you here.

4.If the statement is a correction of what someone else has said or a contradiction to something previously uttered or a warning it is used with the Fall-Rise usually preceded by the Failing Head of the High (Medium) Level Head.

Special questions

1.Special questions are most commonly used with the low falling tone on the last stressed syllable preceded by the Falling Head or the High (Medium) Level Head. In these cases they sound serious, searching and business-like, eg:

Why did you decide to do that? (F. H.) What's the matter? (H. L. H.)

2..If one wants to show much interest in the other person or in the subject and sound friendly and sympathetic he pronounc­es special questions with the low rising tone preceded by theFalling Head or the High (Medium) Level Head, eg: Where do you live now? (F. H.) What's your name? (H. L. H.)

3..For repeated or echoing special questions in unemphatic usage the low rising tone on the question word is also common.

General questions

1.General questions are most common with the low rising tone preceded by the Falling Head or the High (Medium) Level Head. With these patterns they sound genuinely interested, eg: Does he ever come to ,London? (F. H.) May I.try? (H. L. H.)

2.When general questions are said with the Low Fall preced­ed by the above-mentioned types of head they are put forward as a serious suggestion or a subject for urgent discussion, eg: Shall we postpone it? (H. L. H.) Haven't you noticed the mistake? (F. H.)

3.In short questions used as responses like 'Did you?', 'Has she?' the Low Fall is used.

Commands

1.Commands with the Low Fall (preceded or not preceded by the Falling Head or the High (Medium) Level Head) are very powerful, intense, serious and strong. The speaker appears to take it for granted that his words will be heeded, that he will be obeyed, eg: Try the other key. (H. L. H.) Come and have dinner with Tom. (F. H.)

2..Commands with the High Fall (associated with the same types of heads) seem to suggest a course of action rather than to give an order; the speaker does not seem to be worrying whether he will be obeyed or not, eg: Put some more milk in it. (H. L. H.)

3..Short commands pronounced with the Low Fall alone sound unemotional, calm, controlled, often cold, eg: Take it. Stop it.

Exclamations

1.Exclamations are very common with the High Fall (either with no head or with some commonly used heads), eg: Magnificent. (No Head) What an extraordinary piece of Muck. (H. L. H.)

2.For exclamations which refer to something not very excit­ing or unexpected the low falling tone is used (either with no head or with the heads of common usage), eg: That's nice.(M.L.H.) Wonderful. (No Head).




^ 19.English rhythm in connected speech. Rhythm units. Fluency of speech. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and ways of correcting them.

Rhythm is generally measured in regular flow of speech in which stressed and unstressed syllables occur at definite inter­vals.

There are two kinds of speech rhythm: syllable-timed rhythm and stress-timed rhythm.

Rhythm in English is based primarily on the alteration of strongly and weak­ly stressed syllables.

In English words of more than one syl­lable have one or more stressed syllables. Every English word has a definite place for the stress and it cannot be changed. The correct stressing of polysyllabic words helps to secure the recurrence of stress which with the other factors, results in correct speech rhythm.

In English the rhythmic structure is different — all the notional words are stressed, the form-words are fitted in between the stressed ones.

The pronunciation of intonation groups is based upon rhyth­mic groups which are formed by one or more words closely con­nected by sense and grammar, but containing only one strongly stressed syllable.

A rhythmic group may consist of a single word, eg: yester­day; or it may contain several words, eg: I've read it, or Thank you.

The influence of rhythm is very important. The time given to each rhythmic group tends to be unchanged though the number of unstressed syllables may be many or few. Each rhythmic group within an intonation group is given the same amount of time. If there are many unstressed syllables in a rhythmic group, they must be pronounced more quickly.

The words with double stress may lose the first stress when preceded by another strongly stressed syllable, or they may lose the second stress when followed by another strongly stressed syllable, eg: seventeen, number seventeen, seventeen pencils.

Compounds having a double stress are influenced by rhythm in the following way:

When used finally, preceded by unstressed syllables or when used between unstressed syllables, the compounds have double stress.

When preceded by a stressed syllable the compounds are stressed on the second element.

When used as attributes before nouns stressed on the first syllable, the stress falls on the first element of the compound.

All nouns are notional words and are usually stressed. However, when two nouns occur together, the first being used attributively, the second is not stressed, eg: 'film star, 'mother car, 'telephone book, etc.

But if the second noun is polysyllabic it must be stressed, eg: 'picture 'gallery, de'tective 'story, 'English 'teacher, etc.

Most verbs are notional words. In a combination of a v« and an adverb both normally receive stress, eg: 'take 'up, 't 'off, 'put 'on.

Adverbs lose the stress when preceded by a stressed syllable eg: 'Put your hat on, but 'Put it on'; in the second case adverb is stressed because it is preceded by an unstressed syllable.

To acquire a good English speech rhythm one should arrange sentences into intonation groups and then into rhythm groups.


^ 20. Phonostylistic. Stylistic use of intonation. Intonational (phonetic) styles and their principles.

Phonostylistic is concerned with the study of phonetic phenomena and processes from the stylistic point of view. It cropped up as a result of a certain amount of functional overlap between phonetics and stylistics.

Intonation plays a central role in stylistic differentiation of oral texts. Stylistically explicable deviations from intonational norms reveal conventional patterns differing from language to language.

The uses of intonation show that the informa­tion so conveyed is, in many cases, impossible to separate from lexical and grammatical meanings expressed by words and con­structions in a language (verbal context) and from the co-occur­ring situational information (non-verbal context). The meaning of intonation cannot be judged in isolation. However, intonation does not usually correlate in any neat one-for-one way with the verbal context accompanying and the situational variables in an extra-linguistic context. Moreover, the perceived contrast with the intonation of the previous utterance seems to be relevant.

One of the objectives of phonostylistics is the study of intonational functional styles. There are 5 style categories:

1. informational (formal) style;

2. scientific (academic) style;

3. declamatory style;

4. publicistic style;

5. familiar (conversational) style

Informational (formal) style is characterised by the predominant use of intellectual intonation patterns. It occurs in formal discourse where the task set by the sender of the message is to communicate information without giving it any emotional or volitional evaluation. This intonational style is used, for instance, by radio and television announcers when reading weather fore­casts, news, etc. or in various official situations. It is considered to be stylistically neutral.

In scientific (academic) style intellectual and volitional (or desiderative) intonation patterns are concurrently employed. The speaker's purpose here is not only to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose relations between different phe­nomena, etc., but also to direct the listener's attention to the message carried in the semantic component. Although this style tends to be objective and precise, it is not entirely unemotional and devoid of any individuality. Scientific intonational style is frequently used, for example, by university lecturers, school­teachers, or by scientists in formal and informal discussions.

In declamatory style the emotional role of intonation increases, thereby intonation patterns used for intellectual, volitional and emotional purposes have an equal share. The speaker's aim is to appeal simultaneously to the mind, the will and feelings of the listener by image-bearing devices. Declamatory style is gen­erally acquired by special training and it is used, for instance, in stage speech, classroom recitation, verse-speaking or in reading aloud fiction.

Publicistic style is characterized by predominance of volition­al (or desiderative) intonation patterns against the background of intellectual and emotional ones. The general aim of this intona­tional style is to exert influence on the listener, to convince him that the speaker's interpretation is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech. The task is accomplished not merely through logical argumentation but through persuasion and emotional appeal. For this rea­son publicistic style has features in common with scientific style, on the one hand, and declamatory style, on the other. As distinct from the latter its persuasive and emotional appeal is achieved not by the use of imagery but in a more direct manner. Publicistic style is made resort to by political speech-makers, ra­dio and television commentators, participants of press conferenc­es and interviews, counsel and judges in courts of law, etc.

The usage of familiar (conversational) style is typical of the English of everyday life. It occurs both within a family group and in informal external relationships, namely, in the speech of intimate friends or well-acquainted people. In such cases it is the emotional reaction to a situational or verbal stimulus that mat­ters, thereby the attitude- and emotion-signalling function of in­tonation here comes to the fore. Nevertheless intellectual and volitional intonation patterns also have a part to play. In infor­mal fluent discourse there are examples of utterance where the effect of intellectual intonation is neutralized.




^ 20. Phonostylistic. Stylistic use of intonation. Intonational (phonetic) styles and their principles.

Phonostylistic is concerned with the study of phonetic phenomena and processes from the stylistic point of view. It cropped up as a result of a certain amount of functional overlap between phonetics and stylistics.

Intonation plays a central role in stylistic differentiation of oral texts. Stylistically explicable deviations from intonational norms reveal conventional patterns differing from language to language.

The uses of intonation show that the informa­tion so conveyed is, in many cases, impossible to separate from lexical and grammatical meanings expressed by words and con­structions in a language (verbal context) and from the co-occur­ring situational information (non-verbal context). The meaning of intonation cannot be judged in isolation. However, intonation does not usually correlate in any neat one-for-one way with the verbal context accompanying and the situational variables in an extra-linguistic context. Moreover, the perceived contrast with the intonation of the previous utterance seems to be relevant.

One of the objectives of phonostylistics is the study of intonational functional styles. There are 5 style categories:

1. informational (formal) style;

2. scientific (academic) style;

3. declamatory style;

4. publicistic style;

5. familiar (conversational) style

The usage of familiar (conversational) style is typical of the English of everyday life. It occurs both within a family group and in informal external relationships, namely, in the speech of intimate friends or well-acquainted people. In such cases it is the emotional reaction to a situational or verbal stimulus that mat­ters, thereby the attitude- and emotion-signalling function of in­tonation here comes to the fore. Nevertheless intellectual and volitional intonation patterns also have a part to play. In infor­mal fluent discourse there are examples of utterance where the effect of intellectual intonation is neutralized.





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