Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations. icon

Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.



НазваниеDefinition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

Lexicology. №1

Lexicology. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations. Methods of lexicological research.


Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations. Methods of lexicological research. Synchronic and diachronic approach. The theory of the word. Word as a language unit, it’s definition. A word and a morpheme. A word and a word-combination.


1. The term lexicology is composed of two morphemes taken from the Greek language: lexis meaning word, logos meaning a department of knowledge. Thus the term lexicology is generally defined as the science of words, the science of a vocabulary of a given language, various branches of linguistic science approach the word studying from different angles. Phonetics and phonology study the outer from of the word, its sound form. Grammar is the study of a word form (of morphology) and word groups combined in sentemes (syntax). Stylistics studies the stylistic description and study of the English word stock. Lexicology of modern English has for its basic aim the systemic description and study of the vocabulary of the English language at a given stage in history.

2. Until quite recently the term system was applied only to phonetics and grammar. A system is a certain abstraction: a whole constituted by independent elements of the same order. We study the properties of these elements and the relationships these elements enter.

3. Linguistic relationships between words are classified into syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are based on the linear character of speech and are studied by means of contextual transformational and other types of analysis. In syntagmatic relations context is most important. The term context is defined as the minimum stretch of speech necessary and sufficient to determine which of the possible meanings of a word is used. Syntagmatic relations are reflected in the collocability of words. Paradigmatic relations reveal themselves in the morphemic structure of words and are described in terms of morphemes and their arrangement. The linguistic relationships may be subdivided in a following way: 1) the independence of elements within words (the morphological structure of words, the semantic structure of words) 2) the interdependence of words within the vocabulary. It reflects possible groupings within the system 3) the influence of other aspects of the same language.

4. The theoretical course of modern English studies the system of the language in its present-day state. This approach to language is reflected to in linguistic literature as synchronic. The diachronic approach studies the changes that the English language has undergone in the course of its development. Though there is a distinction between the synchronic and diachronic approach to English study: the two shouldn’t be opposed to each other. In this aspect native linguists and the majority of modern foreign linguists disagree with Ferdinand de Saussure, the prominent Swiss philologist, who was the first to introduce the distinction between the synchronic and diachronic approach to a language that the synchronic approach is completely independent and self-contained and has absolute primacy as the only one having to do with the subject matter of linguistics.

5. What is a word? One of the fundamental of basic units of a language, a dialectical unity of form and content. The definition of a word is the one of the most difficult in linguistics because the simplest word has many different aspects. It has a sound form because it’s a certain arrangement of phonemes; it has its morphological structure being also a certain arrangement of morphemes when used in actual speech. It may occur in different word forms and signal various meanings. Being the central element of any language, the word is a sort of focus for the problems of phonology, lexicology, syntax, morphology, semantics and also for some other sciences that have to deal with language and speech, e.g. psychology, philosophy. A word is an autonomous unit of language in which a given meaning is associated with a given sound complex and which is susceptible of a given grammatical employment and able to form a sentence by itself. Words consist of morphemes. And morpheme is also an association of a given meaning with a given sound pattern. But unlike a word it isn’t autonomous. Morphemes occur in speech only as constituent parts of words, not independently although a word may consist of a single morpheme. A morpheme is a minimum meaningful language unit. Words are combined in speech according to the syntactical norms of the language. Free word combinations are created by the speaker according to some syntactical patterns. PU are stable word combinations with wholly of partially transferred meaning.




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