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5. Tendencies of New English Language Development



Название5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
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2. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/Question4. History.doc
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8. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question1. Lexiology.doc
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11. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question4. Lexicology..doc
12. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question1. Phonetics.doc
13. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question2. Phonetics.doc
14. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question3. Phonetics.doc
15. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question4. Phonetics.doc
16. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Morphology.doc
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18. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question1. Syntax.doc
19. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Morphology.doc
20. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Syntax.doc
21. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question3. Morphology.doc
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35. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/15. Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века.doc
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38. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/17. Особенности художественного мира Фолкнера.doc
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40. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/18. Творчество Хэмингуэя.doc
41. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/19. Английский философский роман второй половины 20 века.doc
42. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/2 вопрос лит-ра.doc
43. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/2. Поэзия английского романтизма.doc
44. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/20. Постмодернизм в английской литературе Барнс.doc
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46. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/21. Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны.doc
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48. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4 вопрос лит-ра.doc
49. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4. Творчество Байрона как вершина английского романтизма.doc
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

5. Tendencies of New English Language Development.

Development of the National Literary English Language.

The formation of the national literary English language covers the Early NE period (1475-1660) and is due to the two major external factors: the unification of the country and the progress of culture.

Flourishing of literature in Early NE.

The development of the national literary English language is inseparable from the flourishing of literature known as the English Literary Renaissance or the Age of Shakespeare. The most notable forerunners of the literary Renaissance were the great English humanist Thomas More (the author of Utopia) and William Tyndale, the translator of the Bible.

W. Shakespeare was the chief of the Elizabethan dramatists. His plays were greatly admired in the theatres but less than half of them were printed in his lifetime.

Establishment of the written standard.

The written standard of English had been established by the end of early NE.

The written standard of English arose from the London dialect which was a mixture of South-Western and East Midland dialects. Later the speech of Londoners became even more mixed because of the growing intermixture of the population: the capital attracted newcomers from different regions of the country.

The written standard of the early 17th c. was far less stabilized than the literary standards of later ages. The writings of the Renaissance display a wide range of variation at all linguistic levels: in spelling, grammatical forms, word-building devices, etc.

The 18th c. is remarkable for attempts to fix the language. The English writer J. Swift published his first article on language, which was called “A Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue”. In it Swift protested against careless and deliberate contractions and elisions in formal and informal speech and proposed that a body of scholars should be set up in order to fix the correct rules of usage.

Geographical expansion of the English language.

In the last 300 years English has extended to all the continents of the world. England’s colonial expansion to the New World began in the late 16th c. But the real start came later: in 1607 the first permanent settlements were founded in Jamestown and in 1620 the famous ship “Mayflower” brought a group of English settlers to New England. These Puritans came from the London area, East Anglia and Yorkshire; later colonists came from other regions, including Scotland and Ireland. Many immigrants from GB settled in the West Indies which became a part of British Empire in the 17th c. The colonists spoke different dialect of English. In North America these dialects gradually blended into American English.

Also we should mention the expansion of English to India, Australia, New Zealand, Africa.

The Great Vowel Shift. Growth of long monophthongs and diphthongs due to vocalization of consonants. Loss of consonants.

The Great Vowel Shift is the name given to a series of changes of long vowels (all monophthongs and some diphthongs) between the 14th and the 18th c. During this period all the long vowels became closer or were diphthongized:

i: - ai (time)

e: - i: (kepen – keep)

є:, e: - i: (east)

a: - ei (table)

o: - ou (open)

o: - u: (moon)

u: - au (mous – mouse)

au – o: (drawen – draw)

Growth of long monophthongs and diphthongs due to vocalization of consonants

  1. Vocalization of palatal fricative [x’]: [nix’t] – [nijt] – [ni:t] – [nait]

  2. Vocalization of sonorant [r]: [for] – [fo:], [bar] – [ba:]; [be:r] – [biә].

We may regard three main cases of the loss of consonants:

  1. [w] was lost before a following [o] if it came after another consonant: swa – so.

  2. The initial [h] of the consonant cluster was lost: hring – ring.

  3. In some cases the consonants in the final position were also lost: drivan – drive.

Historical foundations of Modern English spelling.

OE spelling was phonetic. A separate letter was used for each sound, the sound values being for the most part the same as in Latin. However, already in OE some letters indicated two or more sounds: the letter c stood for 2 different phonemes.

In ME the one-to-one correspondence of letter and sound was lost in many cases. More letters than before had two sound values: o stood for [o] and [u], c – for [s] and [k], u could indicate even 3 sounds – the vowels [u] and [y] and the consonant [v].

Spelling reformers of the 16th c. made an effort to improve English orthography. For example, they insisted upon a strict distinction between u and v. Early NE loue was later spelt as love. The use of double consonants became less frequent, except in traditional spellings like kiss, sell. In the 17th and 18th c. the dictionaries and grammars fixed the written forms of the words as obligatory standards; numerous variants of spelling went out of use.

The noun.

In ME and in NE only 2 grammatical categories of noun were preserved compared with the three of OE. These are the categories of number and case, the category of gender having been lost at the beginning of the ME period.

Number

There are two number forms in ME and NE: Singular and Plural, and two methods of indicating the Plural form:

  • -s/-es (from the strong declension)

  • -en (from the weak declension: oxen)

OE stān, ME stōn, NE stone – OE stānas, ME stōnes, NE stones

Case

The number of cases in ME and consequently in NE is reduced to Common and Genitive case. The OE Nominative, Accusative and Dative cases merged into one case – the Common case at the beginning of ME.

OE ME NE

Nom. stān Common case stōn stone

Acc. stān Genitive case stōnes stone’s

Dat. stāne

Gen. stānes

In NE mainly the nouns denoting living beings are used in the Genetive (Possessive) case.

The Adjective

In ME we may find only two grammatical categories of OE: declension and the category of number. The category of gender was lost.

Declension

The difference between strong and weak declension is shown by the zero ending for the former and the ending –e for the latter, but only in the Singular. The forms of the strong and weak declension in the Plural have similar endings (-e): yong, yonge (Sg.), yonge (Pl.).

Number

The difference between number forms is only in the strong declension: yong – yonge.

In NE these grammatical categories do not exist any more.

Degrees of comparison

Contrary to the mentioned above grammatical categories, degrees of comparison of the adjective were not only preserved but also developed in ME and NE: heard, hard, hard – heardra, hardre, harder – heardost, hardest, hardest.

Besides the suffixation as the most productive way of forming degrees, a new analytical method appeared (more, most comfortable).

The verb.

Simplifying changes in the verb conjugation.

The decay of OE inflections is also apparent in the conjugation of the verb.

Number inflections. In the 13th and 14th c. the ending –en turned into the main marker of the pl forms of the verb. But in the late 14th c. it was often missed out and was dropped in the 15th c.

Person inflections. The OE endings of the 3 p. sg - -þ, -eþ, -iaþ – merged into a single ending –(e)th and later –(e)s. The ending –(e)st of the 2 p. sg became obsolete together with the pronoun thou.

In ME homonymy of the mood forms also grew. E.g.: the Indicative and Subjunctive moods could no longer be distinguished in the pl.

The distinction of tenses was preserved in the verb paradigm through all historical periods.

Development of new grammatical forms and categories of the verb

In OE the verb had four categories: person, number, tense and mood. In ME and NE there gradually developed three more grammatical categories – order, voice and aspect.

These grammatical categories used new analytical forms, developed from free word combinations of the OE verbs habban, beon/wesan + infinitive (or participle). The first element of this combination lost its lexical meaning, and the second – its grammatical one.

The category of order was the oldest, formed already in ME from the OE free combination habban + past participle (I have done).

The category of voice appeared out of the free combination of beon + past participle (he was killed).

The category of aspect was formed on the basis of the free combination of beon + present participle (she was singing).

The grammatical categories of tense and mood which existed in OE acquired new categorical forms.

In ME there appeared the form of future tense, developed out of the free combination of the OE modal verbs ‘sculan’ and ‘willan’ with the infinitive. This free combination of words was split into two groups:

  1. in the first, the modal meaning is preserved (You shall do it – necessity, I will do it – volition);

  2. in the second, the fixed word combination is perceived as the future tense form (I shall go there, you will go there).

Syntax

In Early Modern English negatives could be formed either with or without do, post-auxiliary negation becoming more and more common until about 1700, when it was the standard:

I doubt it not (Romeo and Juliet, III.v.52)

I do not doubt you (2 Henry IV, IV.ii.77)

We must also note here that multiple negation, common both in Old English and in Chaucer's day, was proclaimed taboo in the eighteenth century.

In Shakespeare's time yes-no questions could be formed either by subject-verb inversion, as in other European languages, or by subject-auxiliary inversion. WH-questions patterned the same way:

Came he not home tonight? (Romeo and Juliet, II.iv.2)

Do you not love me? (Much Ado about Nothing, V.iv.74)

Progressive forms increased slowly throughout Middle English. Their use has generally ex­panded mainly since the sixteenth century.

The passives are a rather recent innovation. Like the progressives above, they are examples of the shift towards analytic formulations.




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