Charles Dickens (1812-1870) icon

Charles Dickens (1812-1870)



НазваниеCharles Dickens (1812-1870)
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2. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/Question4. History.doc
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17. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question1. Morphology.doc
18. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question1. Syntax.doc
19. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Morphology.doc
20. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Syntax.doc
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31. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/13 вопрос лит-ра.doc
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39. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/18 вопрос лит-ра.doc
40. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/18. Творчество Хэмингуэя.doc
41. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/19. Английский философский роман второй половины 20 века.doc
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46. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/21. Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны.doc
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48. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4 вопрос лит-ра.doc
49. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4. Творчество Байрона как вершина английского романтизма.doc
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51. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/5 и 6.Специфика американского романтизма.doc
52. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/7. Творчество По.doc
53. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/8. Творчество Диккенса.doc
54. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/9. Английский викторианский женский роман.doc
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

Творчество Ч. Диккенса: проблема художественного метода

The period of class struggle in England was mirrored in the literature by the appearance of a new trend – critical realism. The critical realists introduced new characters to the literature: they described the working class and expressed deep sympathy for them. The writers used the novel as a means of depicting the world in a realistic way.

Charles Dickens (1812-1870)

Deep motivation for the character: social, psychological

Interest in the psychology

No romantic escapism

Interest in the contemporary period, most novels take place in England

More traditional Enlightenment novel, moralistic and didactic approach, typical types given in the book, happy endings. Romanticism: the feeling of nature, an interest to the feelings of people

1 period 1833-1841

Sketches by Boz 1833-1836,

The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club 1837. It presents a gallery of wonderful types: they seem to be extremely alive; he managed to put life into caricature. Good people, villains, people who are not remarkable for anything. They also represent feelings.

“Oliver Twist” 1838

Oliver Twist was written as a protest against Poor Low. The poor low didn’t allow homeless people to live in the streets. Dickens put all his hopes in the good qualities of human nature.

Nickolas Nickleby 1839

The Old Curiosity Shop 1841

This period can be called optimistic. Dickens shows us the simple-minded characters (Pickwick) who suffer a lot when come in contact with real life. They are naïve and thus are cheated by the world. But they remain true to their principle of honour. A lot of comic situations, humour. Describes different social phenomena – the elections, the court, the prison, also pension for the old etc. Finally virtue conquers evil. He continues to develop his ideas of good literature – something that makes people better. These novels are like a fairy-tale because of happy end.

2 period 1842 – 1848

American Notes (1842) – Dickens worked abroad – enjoyed American wish to work, he liked the idea of constitution and democracy.

The Christmas Books (1843-1848) – Christmas Carol – an ideal Christmas – comfort, fire, family, roast goose.

Dombey and Son (1846 - 1848) – a heir of the firm, they decides the destiny of poor people. marriage for money – Edith. Weak son. A nurse takes him to poor houses. Money will do everything. Why didn’t money save my mother?

He criticized the power of money for evil, the crimes from bourgeois system. Optimism disappears. False morality, ideas of power of money form the basis of the novel.

3 period – He is disappointed of his romantic illusions of youth. He breaks general plot of the fairy-tales, works are pessimistic, tragic.

David Copperfield (1850) – autobiographical novel, describes child labour and the awful cruelty children suffered when at school or work.

Bleak house (1853) – a satire, against the Court of Chancery (civil court of justice)

Hard Times (1854) against capitalism and industrial way of life

Little Dorrit (1857) – prison where people are put for debt.

A Tale of Two Cities (1859) – about French revolution

“Great Expectations” 1861 – artificiality (Havishem) and real life. Magvich, Estella. Joe, Biddy, 2 endings.

“Our mutual friend”

Dickens has his own style – it is a combination of romanticism and realism. It is the influence of Enlightenment, evil is punished. The influence of sentimentalism – he doesn’t appeal to reason, but to our feelings. Melodramatic situations, farce.

Traces of romanticism: mysterious elements, romantic evil, mystery of birth, heritage, positive and negative characters are opposed, black villains, the conflict is sharpened. Also combination of comic and tragic.

A child is a bearer of natural purity, people should save a child.

Fairy-tales – Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Snow Queen. Aim is to find home. It is a quest, Christmas philosophy.


Oliver Twist 1838

Pick-pocket – вор-карманник, beadle, bribe – взятка, butler – дворецкий

Critics of the middle class. Anyone who could not support himself or herself was considered an immoral, evil person.

The Failure of Charity. The law - the poor could only receive government assistance if they moved into government workhouses. Though he describes humorous moment – feeding а horse with air. Besides charity boys are opposed to workhouse boys.

The Folly of Individualism

Nancy turns against Monks, Charley Bates turns against Sikes, and Monks turns against Mrs. Corney. Fagin’s unstable family, held together only by the self-interest of its members, is juxtaposed to the little society formed by Oliver, Brownlow, Rose Maylie, who is bound together not by concerns of self-interest but by “strong affection and humanity of heart”.

The Countryside Idealized

All the injustices and privations suffered by the poor in Oliver Twist occur in cities—either the great city of London or the provincial city where Oliver is born. When the Maylies take Oliver to the countryside, he discovers a “new existence.” Moreover, country scenes have the potential to “purify our thoughts” and erase some of the vices that develop in the city.

Disguised or Mistaken Identities

The plot of Oliver Twist revolves around the various false identities that other characters impose upon Oliver, often for the sake of advancing their own interests. Mr. Bumble and the other workhouse officials insist on portraying Oliver as something he is not—an ungrateful, immoral pauper. Monks does his best to conceal Oliver’s real identity so that Monks himself can claim Oliver’s rightful inheritance. Characters also disguise their own identities when it serves them well to do so. Nancy pretends to be Oliver’s middle-class sister in order to get him back to Fagin, while Monks changes his name and poses as a common criminal rather than the heir he really is. Cloths play an important part in the construction of various characters’ identities.

Hidden Family Relationships

The revelation of Oliver’s familial ties is among the novel’s most unlikely plot turns: Oliver is related to Brownlow, who was married to his father’s sister; to Rose, who is his aunt; and to Monks, who is his half-brother. This is nor very real, but fantasy. Oliver is at first believed to be an orphan without parents or relatives. Yet, by the end of the novel, it is revealed that he has more relatives than just about anyone else in the novel. This reversal of his fortunes strongly resembles the fulfillment of a naïve child’s wish. The robbery of the houses of his relatives! Portrait

Surrogate Families

Before Oliver finds his real family, a number of individuals serve him as substitue parents, mostly with very limited success. Mrs. Mann and Mr. Bumble are surrogate parents, albeit horribly negligent ones, for the vast numbers of orphans under their care. Mr. Sowerberry and his wife. The most provocative of the novel’s mock family structures is the unit formed by Fagin and his young charges. Oddly enough, the only satisfactory surrogate parents Oliver finds are Brownlow and Rose, both of whom turn out to be actual relatives.

Oliver’s Face

Mr. Sowerberry, Charley Bates, and Toby Crackit all comment on its particular appeal, and its resemblance to the portrait of Agnes Fleming provides the first clue to Oliver’s identity.

Symbols - Characters’ Names represent personal qualities. Oliver Twist “Twist,” – reversal of fortune. T letter. Rose Maylie’s name echoes her association with flowers and springtime, youth and beauty. Toby Crackit’s name is a lighthearted reference to his chosen profession of breaking into houses. Mr. Bumble’s name connotes his bumbling arrogance; Mrs. Mann’s, her lack of maternal instinct; and Mr. Grimwig’s, his superficial grimness that can be removed as easily as a wig.

Oliver Twist 10 years old, food!!!

As the child hero of a melodramatic novel of social protest, Oliver Twist is meant to appeal more to our sentiments than to our literary sensibilities. On many levels, Oliver is not a believable character, because although he is raised in corrupt surroundings, his purity and virtue are absolute. Throughout the novel, Dickens uses Oliver’s character to challenge the Victorian idea that paupers and criminals are already evil at birth, arguing instead that a corrupt environment is the source of vice. Oliver is shocked and horrified when he sees the Artful Dodger and Charley Bates pick a stranger’s pocket and again when he is forced to participate in a burglary. Furthermore, other pauper children use rough Cockney slang, but Oliver, oddly enough, speaks in proper King’s English. His grammatical fastidiousness is also inexplicable, as Oliver presumably is not well-educated. Even when he is abused and manipulated, Oliver does not become angry or indignant. When Sikes and Crackit force him to assist in a robbery, Oliver merely begs to be allowed to “run away and die in the fields.” Oliver does not present a complex picture of a person torn between good and evil—instead, he is goodness incarnate.

Nancy

A major concern of Oliver Twist is the question of whether a bad environment can irrevocably poison someone’s character and soul. Nancy. As a child of the streets, Nancy has been a thief and drinks to excess. The narrator’s reference to her “free and agreeable . . . manners” indicates that she is a prostitute. She sacrifices her own life in order to protect Oliver. Nancy’s moral complexity is unique among the major characters in Oliver Twist. Nancy is capable of both good and evil. Her ultimate choice to do good at a great personal cost is a strong argument in favor of the incorruptibility of basic goodness, no matter how many environmental obstacles it may face. Nancy’s love for Sikes exemplifies the moral ambiguity of her character. Nancy’s character suggests that the boundary between virtue and vice is not always clearly drawn.

Fagin

Although Dickens denied that anti-Semitism had influenced his portrait of Fagin, the Jewish thief’s characterization does seem to owe much to ethnic stereotypes. He is ugly, miserly. Constant references to him as “the Jew” seem to indicate that his negative traits are intimately connected to his ethnic identity. However, Fagin is more than a statement of ethnic prejudice. He is a richly drawn, resonant embodiment of terrifying villainy. At times, he seems like a child’s distorted vision of pure evil.




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