Творчество Э. По: особенности поэтики.
Художественное своеобразие новеллистики Э.А.По. Особенности повествования, противопоставление рационального и иррационального; тема двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы.
Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) is considered to be American romanticist; he is compared with Byron and Goffman. He wrote in different genres: short stories, detective stories, crime fiction, science fiction, poems, novels, essays. As for his views on poetry, the aim of art is only aesthetic. He was pro “art for art’s sake” before the term appeared.
His first peculiarity is the pessimistic motives in his works. There are two reasons for the tragedy of his disposition: 1) his own problems, being an orphan (TB in the family) 2) tragic changes in American life because the other side of bourgeois relations reveal themselves. According to all these facts we can trace special romantic features in Poe’s fiction.
The most prominent feature of romanticism is the romantic hero. Romantic hero can be either a good or a bad person; he acts under extraordinary, exceptional circumstances, even in exotic situations. In the story “A descent into the Maelstrom” Poe sets his hero in an extreme, even extraordinary situation in order to trace the development of character. He shows us the power of human brain and logic, because only by these means the old man survives. Besides the romanticists also have term as natural and civilized people. The first type is the simple, plain people, usually the representatives of the lower classes of society. They may be illiterate, uneducated but have their own wisdom. They are very close to nature and can read its symbols and signs, for example, an old man from the story “A descent into the Maelstrom”. The natural people are opposed to civilized who are used to living in cities and enjoy all its advantages.
The romantic hero is a talented personality with strong will, suffering from the prosaic and trivial world. They have outstanding mind and as a rule the society doesn’t understand them. Such a man can be Legran who is considered to be ill because talking of something understandable to other people but sensible to himself. But the romantic hero is not only a positive one; he may also be a bright antagonist as well. Talking about the evil side of human nature, we can draw an example from the tale “Black cat”. The hero’s unexplainable love for pets showed its opposite side, he went from one extreme to another, from love to hatred. This change is quite typical of romantic hero. the romantic hero is that he doesn’t develop because he doesn’t interact with the environment.
The main conflict of romantic stories is the conflict between the free personality and the hostile world. And there are only two variants of solving it: either the hero survives and wins over the society or he goes away and dies. There is no possibility of compromise. The victory over the circumstances is in the stories “A descent into the Maelstrom” and “The pit and the pendulum”. In almost all other stories the heroes are weak to fight against the nature, the destiny or any other obstacles. In “The Fall of the House of Usher” what is more is that instead of development, of attempts to fight against the inevitable the hero somehow quickens the process of coming to an end. Usher is too fast to burry his sister, there is no resistance.
The ideal world or time of romanticism was the ancient times or rather the utopia. Some kinds of it are represented in the story “The Colloquy of Monos and Una”. And here again we can see one more variant of romantic hero as some sort of abstraction which are Monos and Una. They don’t have particular traces, features of character, we are not given their portraits or deeds, they are blurred.
The romanticists ask universal questions: these are the problems of good and bad, the person and the universe, the freedom and the bondage. Poe appeals to one of these problems – the question of death occurs very often in his stories, it is death over the living. In fact we are under impression that he tries to show us all the possible variants of death, all its meanings. For instance, we can trace a gradation of death in his stories. In the story “A descent into the Maelstrom” we almost feel the death, we can imagine how it looks like because we see a story is about a man, who managed to escape the whirlpool and remained alive. But it is rather an optimistic example of a fortunate outcome. The possibility of getting out of almost impossible traps is also shown in the story “The pit and the pendulum” but the circumstances and the whole atmosphere are more severe, it is more powerful; it influences your mind and intensifies your emotions. It seems to you that you instead of the hero are tortured by inquisition. But still even if the logics and rational way of thinking are very important and play the key role, the destiny depends a lot on the events outside his dungeon. In the stories “Black cat” and “The Masque of the Red Death” people tried to run away, to escape death and punishment, but the death is stronger and at last it finds people everywhere. One of the horror variants of death is premature burial which is the main topic of two stories of Poe. There Poe depicts the struggle on the subconscious level of a person, all his phobias. On the other hand the author shows us absurdity of preparing to death and even the wishes to burry a person as quick as possible. And one more type of interpreting death is set in the story “The Colloquy of Monos and Una” where the main idea is that life exists after life and that the death is only a step, a stage into future development.
Of course, symbols play a great role in romantic fiction. There are some traditional symbols as black cat – the symbol of diabolic powers, of the devil himself, the whirlpool as the end of life, the ball of masks as depicting the society. But on the other hand there are new symbols introduced by the writer. They are: the crack in the house of Usher as the visual reason for destroy and decay and decadence, the names of Monos and Una taken from Greek and Latin to represent the two parts of the whole, the unity. It is the description of pendulum as a rock, fate and time which is indifferent to everyone; the image of the mirror instead of the portrait as showing the inner and outer changing and the entrance to another reality.
Peculiarities of Poe
1) In Poe’s stories the setting is not American, stories are usually set in Europe: Italy, Scotland, we don’t see the realities of the period. Poe chooses the places due to romantic atmosphere.
2) lack of any religious references. If they are, they are not significant.
3) combination of rational and irrational, world of dead and living.
Poe believed in reason. All mysteries can be rationized, understood. He composes his stories very rationally.
Division of stories: detective, mystery – of criminal quality. Investigator. Creator of the genre. Dupin – the embodiment of a power of human reason.
Horror stories – God connected with nature – Descend into
And science fiction
Any horror comes from human psychic and subconscious which is dark.
Duplicity of human nature – double.
Stylistic devices: presents a picture of a poet, poetic archaic words, tone is excited, chain of synonyms, details – colours, noises, nature – dark moon in the “House of Asher’s”, the plot of the detective stories – the whole story told by Dupin after the murder is actually committed.
The Fall of the house of Usher - Roderick Usher
The Black cat
A Descent into the Maelstrom
The Masque of the Red death
|"Приемы ведения беседы. Запрещенные приемы при ведении беседы" пла основные психологические принципы ведения беседы Тактика ведения беседы, переговоро Запрещенные приемы во время беседы, переговоров Основные психологические принципы ведения беседы. Умение бесконфликтно и продуктивно вести беседу – н|
Приемы ведения беседы. Запрещенные приёмы. Партнёрская беседа. Темперамент. Лидерство и руководство
|Давыдова И. В. Перечень вопросов к зачету по дисциплине “Стилистика”|
Синтаксические стилистические приемы (хиазм, повтор, перечисление, градация, антитеза)
1. /стилистика/1. Стилистика как наука, её предмет и задачи.doc
|Курсовая работа Основные приемы словотворчества и речевого манипулирования в политическом дискурсе (на примере предвыборной президентской кампании в США 2008 года)|
Основные приемы словотворчества и речевого манипулирования в политическом дискурсе 1
|Смысловыми особенностями слова, его значением. Например, слово крепкий|
Этим определяются основные понятия, которыми оперирует стилистика: функциональные стили и стилистические коннотации (стилистическое...
|План Игровая природа рекламы|
Игровые приемы и "продающая сила" рекламы: игровые приемы как способ привлечь внимание; игровые приемы как источник удовольствия...
|Тема 17. Основные приёмы социологического исследования|
Организация социологического исследования сложный и многоплановый процесс. Рассмотрим основные его составляющие
1. /Исследование феномена двойничества в культуре серебряного века в аспекте изучения творчества...
|Слипенко, Дмитрий Налоговые новеллы для неприбыльных // Юридическая практика, 2011.№ С. 20-21 2 декабря 2010 года Верховный Совет Украины принял Налоговый кодекс Укра¬ины (НК), который вступает в силу с 1 января 2011 года.|
Слипенко, Дмитрий Налоговые новеллы для неприбыльных // Юридическая практика, 2011.№ С. 20-21
|Памятка для студентов по подготовке к экзаменам «Память. Приемы организации запоминаемого материала»|
Особенно эффективны мнемотехнические приемы (приемы запоминания), так как снабжение образующихся следов памяти «опознавательными...
|Стилистические фигуры и тропы|