2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P.B.Shelley).
Speaking about the poetry of English romanticism we should distinguish 2 different stages of its development that manifested themselves in the two generations of English romanticists: Lake school and Keats and Shelley. Having the same romantic ideas and in some way being the followers of the first the second were always criticizing their predecessors.
Romanticism – (from the term roman – in the Middle Ages French literature it was a narration about adventures of the heroes). The rise of Romanticism is connected with economic and social changes of the end of the 18th century. Romanticists criticized the reality from the mental and ethical points of view. They didn’t want to follow the way their fathers went and negated all the past of the humanity; that is history, literature, art and so on. The first Romanticist were inspired by the Great French Revolution. The ideas of the poetry in this period were freedom and justice. Human feelings such as love, creative activity and nature were also important. But in five years came the period of realization of the inanity and cruelty of the revolution. The beginning of the Jacobinic terror in France, Napoleon’s terror destroyed all the illusions and showed the inner side of the new bourgeois relations. Romanticists started to oppose something to this unpleasant reality and that brought to the creation of the romantic conflict between the hero and the real actuality. The salvation of the conflict lied in the romantic “double world”. The romantic hero exists in the two worlds: physically in the real one and mentally in the ideal one. The ideal world can be: 1) idealized past - antiquity or Middle Ages as in W.Scott or John Keats; 2) utopian future as in Shelley; 3) exotic east – in Byron 4) the world of nature, music, art or science – Shelley.
The first period of the English Romanticism is represented by the three brilliant poets united under the name of the Lake school - William Wordsworth, Samuel Coleridge and Robert Sauthy.
William Wordsworth created the theory of English romanticism and published it as a preface for the “Lyrical ballads” that were written together with Coleridge. They decided to compose two types of creative works and place them into the “Ballads”: Wordsworth had to write about the usual events and characters but represent them in the unusual way. Coleridge had to write about the unusual events that would provoke the readers’ dramatic emotions and feelings. By this they determined the two main ways of development of the English Romantic poetry.
Wordsworth thought that poetry can take the events of the usual life but they must be connected with nature because nature plays the main role in the life of a person. Maybe by this reason the special theme for Wordsworth was the English patriarchic village in the period of its flourish. In these works Wordsworth stresses the ideas of religiosity, the strength of the family connections, the closeness to the nature.
The poet has to connect the world of nature and the world of men. Poetry is the shortest and the best way of the upbringing of the person.
Imagination is extremely important in the process of creation, it gives real sounding to the familiar things. Imagination is the highest level of knowledge that’s way the poet is always a wise man, seer.
Wordsworth thought that the poetry should develop the people and the be understood it should be written in a simple language. That’s way his language is close to the language of the people.
Samuel Coleridge at the beginning of his poetic career worked together with Wordsworth. He also wrote a theoretical work “Literary biography” – that pays great attention to the questions of imagination. Coleridge creates a new theory even in comparison with Wordsworth. He distinguishes between the terms of imagination and fantasy. Fantasy is a creation of the mind, it is made consciously and is not highly valued. Imagination is a creation of the spirit and soul of the poet, it cannot be made by a usual person.
“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” – is a poem created by Coleridge. It expresses the ideas common to Romanticism – loneliness of the lyrical hero, feeling of guilt, the ideas of death. Nature is also very important in the poem it expresses the inner state of the hero through sounds, light, colors; it serves as a symbol - an albatross is a symbol of Christianity killed by the sailor.
Robert Sauthy was a conservative politician and stuck to the genre of a ballad. In his works he addressed to the theme of a simple people, psychology, punishment and crime.
In a whole it can be said that the representatives of the Lake school created a great base for the development of the future generations of the English poetry. But Keats, Shelley and Byron couldn’t openly follow their predecessors. Wordsworth and Coleridge in the second period of their life wanted to go side by side with the government. At the same time young and aggressive Keats, Shelley and Byron protested against the ruling powers and their followers. And though the investigators of their creative works find a lot of influences of the elder romanticists their political views were always the opposite.
P. B. Shelley is a representative of the second generation of the English Romanticists. He shared the view of the Lake school concerning the role of a poet and the importance of the poetry but bared the revolutionary views that influenced its creative works greatly. He was a friend of Byron.
He dreamt of the golden age based on the principle of justice and painted it in his works. He protested against the borders of the religion, family, society and so on. His favorite heroes are Prometheus against Zeus, Satan against God.
Shelley wrote a lyrical drama “Prometheus Unbound”. It represented all of his ideas. On the one hand, it is an actualization of his idea if the golden age that will be born by this one (as Demogorgon is born by Fetida from Zeus). On the other hand, it manifests the ideas of the republic by the last words of the Demogorgon – “there will be no successor for the Zeus”. The same ideas are shown in the preface – “the world should be changed”. And to show the scale of the changes Shelley makes sky and earth, moon and stars participate in the drama.
Nature is also very important for Shelley – it is solid and eternal in comparison with the changing social world. “The Ode to the west wind” – shows the usual for the English poets theme from the new side: the strong wind destroys everything on its way but it brings renovation. Actually Shelley is rather optimistic in his lyrics – winter is just a step to spring.
The other themes of his creativity are love and politics. In the both of them he was really sincere. Love is a way to struggle with tyranny, with death (“восстание ислама”).
John Keats is one of least known English poets in Russia and one of the most popular in England. He created only for 5 years but was influenced by different poets. He stuck to the revolutionary ideas only in the beginning of his creativity influenced by Lee Hunt and later political ideas left his poetry and appeared only in letters. Keats is mostly knows for his sonnets and odes such as “One to Greek Urn”, “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Grasshopper and cricket”, “bright star” and so on. His poems are set in ancient times and are poetic variants of the legends (Endymion, Isabella or a pot of basil). Keats valued imagination and even announced that all the previous creativity was bad because it was not created with true imagination. The main themes of his works were nature and love. Nature is viewed by Keats pantheistically, the images of nymphs and satires, gods and godesses recurrently occur in his works. His love sonnets are mainly devoted to Fanny Braun the only love of the poet that followed him in a year after his death. Love for Keats stands on the one ground with beauty, truth and nature. These terms are so often intermixed that seem to be equal. Keats thinks that life can be percepted through the poetry and the task of the real poet is to show real life.
In the last period of his life when illness was already strong Keats addresses to the theme of death, f.e. sonnet “When I have fears that I may cease to be” – where death is a power which divides the poet from nature, love and his work. The epitaph invented by Keats for himself says: “here lies the one whose name is written on the water”. This epitaph was probably inspired by the critics of Keats that strongly criticized all of his creations.
|Public campaign around Lake Baikal Pozdnyakova Elena, gr. 642|
Это глубочайшее озеро планеты Земля, крупнейший природный резервуар пресной воды. This is the deepest lake of the Earth, the largest...
|John Locke is one of the most outstanding English philosophers of the XVII century|
|Урок по английскому языку по теме «School»|
Открытый урок по английскому языку по теме «School», 5 класс, учебник «Enjoy English», автор М. З. Биболетова
|Elena Velikaya, National Research University-Higher School of Economics Essay Writing in English|
1. /American local dialects..docx
|"Дейл Be Not Proud"|
Хэнк, Bill, Дейл and Boomhauer make a trip to the local Arlen Speedway and are excited to meet the fastest funny-car race driver...
|The United Kingdom|
«English», but the Irish, the Welsh and the Scots don't like this, because they are Celts by the origin, and the English are the...
|Summer School on Human Rights 04 – 08 June 2012, at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow|
|Summer School on Human Rights 04 – 08 June 2012, at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow||Утверждаю проректор по учебной работе Брагин Л. А. International Business School (5th semester 2012/2013 school year)|
|Film-Criticism and Cinema-Press in Russia|
«the revolution's romanticism» of the twenties, «the ideological conservatism» of thirties and forties, «the thaw» of the fifties...