Английский философский роман второй половины 20 века.
Английский философский роман второй половины XX века. Влияние философии экзистенциализма и фрейдизма. Особенности жанра, типы героев, интертекстуальность, художественные приемы (У.Голдинг, А.Мердок, Дж.Фаулз).
Philosophical novels are works of fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy. These might include: the function and role of society; the purpose of life; ethics or morals; the role of art in human lives; and, the role of experience or reason in the development of knowledge. Philosophical novels would include the so-called novel of ideas, a significant proportion of science fiction, utopian/dystopian novels.
There is no universally acceptable definition of the philosophical novel, but certain novels would be of key importance in its history. In English literature this novels started to appear after the Second World War because of the political instability. The nuclear bombing gave a feeling of Apocalypses, crisis of all positive features of life became the central feeling, the cold war. During the Second World War the British Isles were attacked and they lost their feeling of safety. Thus there appeared an idea of illusion, the feeling of unreality. And the writers started to depict psychological life after this trauma, they tried to oppose something to this real world. Such novels are of the writers William Golding, Iris Murdoch and John Fowles.
William Golding (1911 – 1993). After graduating from Oxford, he worked briefly as an actor, then became a schoolteacher. When England entered World War II, Golding joined the Royal Navy; after the war, he resumed a teaching career, and also began writing novels. His first and greatest success came with 1954's Lord of the Flies. All his novels are written in the genre of philosophic parable. This genre contains moral or religious lesson, it is allegoric. The Lord of the Flies 1854. The plot originates from a novel of Mr. R.M. Ballantyne «The Coral Island» 1858. A group of boys got to the island after a catastrophe and they try to survive. But there on the island their true nature started to reveal itself. The title is a reference to a line from King Lear - "As flies to wanton boys, are we to the gods, — They kill us for their sport". It may also be a reference to the Hebrew name Beelzebub (בעל זבוב, Baal-zvuv, "god of the fly" or "host of the fly"), a name sometimes used as a synonym for Satan.
The main theme of the novel is civilization vs. savagery. It is the conflict between two competing impulses that exist within all human beings: the instinct to live by rules, act peacefully, follow moral commands, and value the good of the group against the instinct to gratify one’s immediate desires, act violently to obtain supremacy over others, and enforce one’s will. This conflict might be expressed in a number of ways: civilization vs. savagery, order vs. chaos, reason vs. impulse, law vs. anarchy, or the broader heading of good vs. evil. Throughout the novel, Golding associates the instinct of civilization with good and the instinct of savagery with evil.
As it is parable, there are no shades, everything is like black and white.
As the novel progresses, Golding shows how different people feel the influences of the instincts of civilization and savagery to different degrees. Piggy, for instance, has no savage feelings, while Roger seems barely capable of comprehending the rules of civilization. Generally, however, Golding implies that the instinct of savagery is far more primal and fundamental to the human psyche than the instinct of civilization. Golding sees moral behavior, in many cases, as something that civilization forces upon the individual rather than a natural expression of human individuality. When left to their own devices, Golding implies, people naturally revert to cruelty, savagery, and barbarism.
Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel, which means that Golding conveys many of his main ideas and themes through symbolic characters and objects. He represents the conflict between civilization and savagery in the conflict between the novel’s two main characters: Ralph, the protagonist, who represents order and leadership; and Jack, the antagonist, who represents savagery and the desire for power.
Ralph represents order, leadership, and civilization. Piggy represents the scientific and intellectual aspects of civilization. Jack Maridue (kill a pig) represents savagery and the desire for power. Simon represents natural human goodness that is deeply connected with nature. Ralph and Piggy are products of social conditioning. Roger represents brutality and bloodlust at their most extreme. To the extent that the boys’ society resembles a political state, the littluns might be seen as the common people, while the older boys represent the ruling classes and political leaders. The relationships that develop between the older boys and the younger ones emphasize the older boys’ connection to either the civilized or the savage instinct: civilized boys like Ralph and Simon use their power to protect the younger boys and advance the good of the group; savage boys like Jack and Roger use their power to gratify their own desires, treating the littler boys as objects for their own amusement.
Another symbols – devices:
The conch shell (раковина маллюска) – they use it to summon the boys together after the crash separates them. Used in this capacity, the conch shell becomes a powerful symbol of civilization and order in the novel. For the boy who holds the shell holds the right to speak. In this regard, the shell is more than a symbol—it is an actual vessel of political legitimacy and democratic power. Then no order as the novel progresses.
Piggy’s Glasses - his glasses represent the power of science and intellectual endeavor in society.
The Signal Fire - the signal fire becomes a barometer of the boys’ connection to civilization. When no fire, they lost their connection. When there is – they want to be rescued.
The imaginary beast that frightens all the boys stands for the primal instinct of savagery that exists within all human beings. . The boys are afraid of the beast, but only Simon reaches the realization that they fear the beast because it exists within each of them. As the boys grow more savage, their belief in the beast grows stronger. By the end of the novel, the boys are leaving it sacrifices and treating it as a totemic god.
The Lord of the Flies is the bloody, severed sow’s head that Jack impales on a stake in the forest glade as an offering to the beast. The Lord of the Flies becomes both a physical manifestation of the beast, a symbol of the power of evil, and a kind of Satan figure who evokes the beast within each human being. Looking at the novel in the context of biblical parallels, the Lord of the Flies recalls the devil, just as Simon recalls Jesus. In fact, the name “Lord of the Flies” is a literal translation of the name of the biblical name Beelzebub, a powerful demon in hell sometimes thought to be the devil himself.
Intertexuality: to the Bible - Simon’s glade in the forest, recalls the Garden of Eden in its status as an originally pristine place that is corrupted by the introduction of evil. Simon and Jesus. Among the boys, Simon is the one who arrives at the moral truth of the novel, and the other boys kill him sacrificially as a consequence of having discovered this truth.
John Fowles (1926 – 2005)
(1963) The Collector
(1964) The Aristos
(1965) The Magus (revised 1977)
(1969) The French Lieutenant\'s Woman
(1974) The Ebony Tower
Many critics now consider him a forefather of British postmodernism.
Born in 1926(died in 2005), Fowles served after the war in the Royal Marines and then studied French literature( and Existentialism)at Oxford; his novels and stories would always display strong French influences (see the stories of The Ebony Tower, 1974). Then, fallen out of love with his own claustrophobic Englishness, he became a language teacher abroad (Greece); finally he returned to teach in Britain. In 1963 he published his first novel, The Collector, dealing with what was to be a fundamental theme of Fowles writing, the pursuit of the elusive and enigmatic female who is the obscure object of desire. It is about a young clerk, Frederick Clegg, half maniac, half just lonely and crippled spiritually person, a collector of butterflies, who decides to capture and imprison a girl, Miranda, a student of arts, with whom he had fallen in love; the tale is about enchantment, possession and the male desire to entrap. Fowles tells it from both viewpoints, that of the prisoner and the collector, the enchanter and the enchanted, the symbol and the one who tries to hold and contain it. The subject of the story led directly to his second novel, The Magus (1966). It opens realistically enough in London, the story of Nicholas Urfe, an inexperienced young Englishman (“passive, abdicating, English in life”), who tries to purge a failed guilty love affair from his life by taking a teaching post on the Greek island of “Phraxos”. The episode begins ordinarily, but then the atmosphere starts to change. Urfe slowly finds he has entered a world of enchanted or fantastic, where “second meanings hung in the air, ambiguities, unexpectedness.” Narratives multiply, odd recreations of events from the past occur; the island is full of strange sounds and mysteries. Then Urfe is taken up by the magus, or magician, of the title, Conchis, the Prospero of the island.(See Shakespearean The Tempest). He creates a series of “god-games”, masques or strange theatricals that surround Urfe. Some of them reveal the ambiguous history of Conchis himself, or the history of the island, scene of wartime Nazi atrocities and more atrocities in the Greek Civil War, and of the bitter XXth century. But if Urfe is being given an education in magic, or theatricality, enchantment and illusion, he is also being taken far deeper, into a deep psychotherapy or mythotherapy. He becomes increasingly exposed to the problems of his own English nature, his limitations and repressions, his failure in love and desire, the limits and delusions of his male sexuality and his damaging relationship with Alison, the girl in London he had abandoned, the existential problems of choice and human freedom. The ambiguous role of the magus Concis, the maker of god-games, is central to the drama. At one level he is the priest, the wise man, the therapist; but he is also the trickster, the counterfeiter, the manipulator of illusions and the corrupter of souls. Nicholas accepts the fictionality that surrounds him, as an ambiguous and yet also a purgative fiction, that “all here is illusion” and “the masque is only a metaphor.” Yet his life, his world and his self-knowledge have been transformed.
The French Lieutenants Woman is Fowles masterpiece, a return to the Victorian novel and therefore to the site of that realism from which modern fiction has been struggling to diverge. Fowles seizes on all that Victorian fiction has to offer to the later novelist: its narrative capaciosness, vividness of character, its scale and detail, a sense of life as an orderly process of opening and closure, even while acknowledging that no contemporary writer should write as the Victorians did. He constructs the novel – set just a hundred years earlier, in 1867 – in terms of many Victorian conventions and interpretations; he also probes its doubts, hypocrisies, gaps and silences from the standpoint of someone who can know what the Victorians could not, placing his characters’ world back in a distinctive stage of the longer historical evolution of which so much more was known and in which modern people find themselves. He does it from the standpoint of an author who has read Freud, knows modern Existentialism, Barthes and Robbe-Grillet. The story is set in the 1860s because at this time the old realities were collapsing in the face of evolutionary theories of Darwin and Lyall. “Just as we “live with the bomb”, the Victorians lived with the theory of evolution. They were hurled into space. They felt themselves isolated”. The writer manages to recover, examine, question and challenge the value of the Victorian novel for his own time, while seeing his time itself in the light of Victorian origines. The story has two endings, placed side by side. One ends in marriage, the other in main heroines(Sarah) independence; according to mood, we may prefer one over the other. But the real point is not that they offer a choice to the reader but existential “freedom” to the two main characters; they are left indeterminate, free to “emerge” as they wish from the end of the story. This creates a new postmodern paradox, as the characters themselves are fictions made of words. Fowles affirms the existential message of his ambiguous ending: ”Fiction is woven into all…I find this new reality(or unreality) more valid.”
The other books by Fowles:
The Ebony Tower(1974)
Daniel Martin (1977)
A Maggot (1985)
Composition: 3 parts 1 – prehistory of Miranda’s abduction, 2 – Miranda’s diary, another version of events The second part of the novel is narrated by Grey in the form of fragments from a diary that she keeps during her captivity, 3 – the diary of Clegg, then epilogue which resembles the beginning of the story thus is circle composition. The information is not told linear. Cellar (подвал)
Miranda is associated with the sun, light, sky and Clegg is associated with underground world, death, rain.
The information is repeated, thus the stress is on the individuality of the characters, because every hero in his story chooses the details that are most important for him.
Intertexuality: She starts to have some pity for her captor, comparing him to Caliban in Shakespeare's play The Tempest because of his hopeless obsession with her and his warped behavior.
Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. It is opposed to chrisitanity which states that a person has his life predestined. A central proposition of existentialism is that existence precedes essence; that is, that a human being's existence precedes and is more fundamental than any meaning which may be ascribed to human life: man defines his reality. We feel deep anxiety of human existence — the feeling that there is no purpose, indeed nothing. The person feels fear. Frontier situation in which the person must make a choice is characteristic of it.
Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. Her first published novel, Under the Net, was selected in 2001 by the editorial board of the American Modern Library as one of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. In 1987, she was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
Iris Murdoch was born in Dublin, Ireland, on 15 July, 1919. She went on to read classics, ancient history, and philosophy at Somerville College, Oxford, and philosophy as a postgraduate at Newnham College, Cambridge, where she studied under Ludwig Wittgenstein. In 1948, she became a fellow of St Anne\'s College, Oxford.
She wrote her first novel, Under the Net in 1954, having previously published essays on philosophy, including the first study in English of Jean-Paul Sartre. It was at Oxford in 1956 that she met and married John Bayley, a professor of English literature and also a novelist. She went on to produce 25 more novels and other works of philosophy and drama until 1995, when she began to suffer the early effects of Alzheimer\'s disease, which she at first attributed to writer\'s block. She died at 79 in 1999.
Murdoch's novels are by turns intense and bizarre, filled with dark humor and unpredictable plot twists, undercutting the civilized surface of the usually upper-class milieu in which her characters are observed. Above all they deal with issues of morality, and the conflicts between good and evil are often presented in mundane scenes that gain mythic and tragic force through the subtlety with which they are depicted. Though intellectually sophisticated, her novels are often melodramatic and comedic, rooted, she famously said, in the desire to tell a "jolly good yarn." She was strongly influenced by philosophers like Plato, Freud, Simone Weil and Sartre, and by the 19th century English and Russian novelists. Her novels often include gay characters, empathetic pets, and sometimes a powerful and almost demonic male "enchanter" who imposes his will on the other characters — a type of man Murdoch is said to have modeled on her lover, the Nobel laureate, Elias Canetti.
Although she wrote primarily in a realistic manner, on occasion Murdoch would introduce ambiguity into her work through a sometimes misleading use of symbolism, and by mixing elements of fantasy within her precisely described scenes. The Unicorn (1963) can be read and enjoyed as a sophisticated Gothic romance, or as a novel with Gothic trappings, or perhaps as a parody of the Gothic mode of writing. The Black Prince (1973) is a remarkable study of erotic obsession, and the text becomes more complicated, suggesting multiple interpretations, when subordinate characters contradict the narrator and the mysterious "editor" of the book in a series of afterwords.
Murdoch was awarded the Booker Prize in 1978 for The Sea, the Sea, a finely detailed novel about the power of love and loss, featuring a retired stage director who is overwhelmed by jealousy when he meets his erstwhile lover after several decades apart.
Several of her works have been adapted for the screen, including the British television series of her novels An Unofficial Rose and The Bell. J. B. Priestley dramatized her 1961 novel, A Severed Head, which was directed by Richard Attenborough in 1971, and starred Ian Holm. Richard Eyre's film, Iris (2001), based on her husband's memoir of his wife as she developed Alzheimer's disease, starred Dame Judi Dench and Kate Winslet respectively as the older and younger versions of Dame Iris Murdoch. Both Dench and Winslet received Oscar nominations for their roles.
Under the Net (1954)
James Donaghue (Jake)
Anna and Sadie Quentin
Peter O'Finney (Finn)
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Философские проблемы науки и техники/ Philosophical Problems of Science and Engineering
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Философские проблемы науки и техники/ Philosophical Issues of Science and Engineering
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Философские проблемы науки и техники/ Philosophical problems of a science and technics
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Философские проблемы науки и техники/ Philosophical Problems of Science and Engineering
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Целью работы является исследование способов передачи фразеологизмов на материале романов Фитцджеральда и Вудхауса и их переводах...