18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method icon

18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method



Название18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method.

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. Nicknamed "Papa", he was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris, as described in his memoir A Moveable Feast, and was known as part of "the Lost Generation", a name he popularized. He led a turbulent social life, was married four times, and allegedly had various romantic relationships during his lifetime. For a serious writer, he achieved a rare cult popularity during his life. Hemingway received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954.

Hemingway's distinctive writing style is characterized by economy and understatement and had a significant influence on the development of twentieth-century fiction writing. His protagonists are typically stoic males who must show "grace under pressure." Many of his works are now considered classics in the American literature canon.

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Hemingway was the first son and the second child born to Clarence Edmonds ("Doctor Ed") and Grace Hall Hemingway. While his mother hoped that her son would develop an interest in music, Hemingway adopted his father's outdoorsman hobbies of hunting, fishing, and camping in the woods and lakes of northern Michigan. These early experiences in close contact with nature instilled in Hemingway a lifelong passion for outdoor adventure and for living in remote or isolated areas.

Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School from September, 1913 until graduation in June 1917. He excelled both academically and athletically; he boxed, played football, and displayed particular talent in English classes. His first writing experience was writing for "Trapeze" and "Tabula" (the school's newspaper and original literary magazine, respectively) in his junior year, then serving as editor in his senior year. After high school, Hemingway did not want to go to college. Instead, at age eighteen, he began his writing career as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star.

Hemingway left his reporting job after only a few months, and, against his father's wishes, tried to join the United States Army to see action in World War I. He supposedly failed the medical examination due to poor vision, and instead joined the Red Cross Ambulance Corps. Soon after arriving on the Italian Front Hemingway witnessed the brutalities of war.

The main question of Hemingway’s creativity is what can be a life guiding line for a natural person in the world where there are no rules and foundations. The meaning of his creative works and the philosophy of tragedy common to them is wider than just the image of “the lost generation”. The term popularized by Hemingway unites not only those who returned from the war and couldn’t see the difference between war and peace but also those who staying in the atmosphere of peace feel warlike essence of the surrounding world.

Among the American authors only Faulkner can be compared with Hemingway in terms of the literary style that is the creativity of the thinking and careful finishing of the material. In the works of Hemingway we come across reminiscences from Dante, Stendal, Flober, Mopassan, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Heitche, Kipling, Conrad, Eliot, Joyce and American Twain, Stain, Anderson, Fitzgerald, Wilder and others.

Though Hemingway became famous because of his novels “The sun also rises”, “Farewell to arms!”, “to have and have not”, “for whom the bell tolls” he developed his telegraph technique in his novels. It was also influenced by his work in magazines where editors asked for short sentences and short paragraphs. This style was compared by the author with an iceberg that is seen only for 1\8. the conscience of his characters is closely connected with things, with tactile and visual images that are usually repeated several times. This way the most important ideas are left between the lines that adds expressiveness to the text. That is especially true if we speak about the dialogue. Hemingway tells the readers what his character is doing and where he is looking but what he sees and feels must be guessed by the reader.

A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway in 1929. Much of the novel was written at the home of Hemingway\'s in-laws in Piggott, Arkansas. A Farewell to Arms details the romance between Frederic Henry, an American soldier, and Catherine Barkley, a British nurse. The novel is heavily autobiographical: the plot is directly inspired by his relationship with Sister von Kurowsky in Milan; the intense labor pains of his second wife, Pauline, in the birth of Hemingway's son Patrick inspired Catherine's labor in the novel; the real-life Kitty Cannell inspired the fictional Helen Ferguson; the priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. While the inspiration of the character Rinaldi is obscure, curiously, he had already appeared in In Our Time. A Farewell to Arms was published at a time when many other World War I books were prominent, including Frederic Manning's Her Privates We, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Richard Aldington's Death of a Hero, and Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That. The success of A Farewell to Arms made Hemingway financially independent.

The novel draws heavily on Hemingway's experiences as a young soldier. It tells the story of Lieutenant Frederic Henry, a young American ambulance driver serving in the Italian army during World War I.Henry falls in love with the British voluntary aid detachment Catherine Barkley. After he loses his arms at the front by a trench mortar shell, she tends to him in the hospital during his recuperation, and their relationship develops further. His recuperation and romance with the now pregnant Catherine ends abruptly when Henry must return to the front. Henry narrowly escapes death at the hands of fanatical Italian soldiers, who are executing officers separated from their troops during the Italians' disastrous retreat following the Battle of Caporetto.He finds Catherine, and after a brief sojourn in an Italian resort, the couple flees to Switzerland just avoiding being arrested for desertion. In Switzerland, their child is born dead, and Catherine dies shortly after due to hemorrhages. A Farewell to Arms is an excellent example of the simple, terse prose style that made Hemingway famous.

The title is a quotation from the poem written on the death of a famous warrior. The irony is obvious – this novel shows the defeat of the arms. The arms that are meant by the author is the idea of the war itself – cruel and meaningless that destroys the lives of millions of people. The title has also a double meaning – arms of the loving woman that are killed by the war. Still this novel is not antimilitary. Lieutenant Henry is a strong brave man but he sees that this is the war where there are now enemies and friends, that “peaceful” places are influenced by war even stronger than the field of battle. Little by little love becomes the main medicine: starting with naturalistic descriptions Hemingway shows love as a symbol of a new life. But it stays an inaccessible dream that can never be fulfilled: the image of a man without a woman, children, parents and family is important for the symbol of “lost” people for Hemingway.

The Old Man and the Sea is a novella by Ernest Hemingway written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction to be produced by Hemingway and published in his lifetime.One of his most famous works, it centers upon an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream. Though it has been the subject of disparate criticism, it is noteworthy in twentieth century fiction and in Hemingway's canon, reaffirming his worldwide literary prominence and significant in his selection for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954.

The Old Man and the Sea allows various interpretations. The style of the work, the simplicity and the concreteness of its descriptions, provides a rich opportunity for symbolic interpretations. Santiago, the main character in Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, may be seen as a defeated hero. He represents the courage, strength and endurance of the human race. He, like all men, struggled with faith (the fish) and both hated and loved life (the sea). The thing that truly defeated Santiago was his pride.

Santiago represents humankind. Hemingway compares him to Jesus Christ on several occasions. The marlin represents religion; the fish has been a symbol of Christianity since its early days, and the sea represents life as it is thought to be where life began, and is a staple in our survival as humans. The marlin swims through the sea as religion weaves through life. Santiago struggles with the fish as humans often do with their faith. Santiago loves the fish as men love their gods, and he hates the fish as men hate their gods. The fish was beautiful and huge and Santiago felt a connection with it, he considered it his brother. Hemingway says that Santiago is not a religious man, but he seems to have some faith as shown by his offers to say his "Hail Marys" if he catches the marlin.

Santiago is ultimately defeated by his pride. He goes too far out to sea and thinks that he can conquer the sharks. Santiago questions sin, and pride is the ultimate sin in Christian discourse. He even apologizes to the fish, as a man would apologize to his god, for his pride. The old man's pride breaks his heart and he spits it out in the night.

Santiago is a hero, but he is defeated. He wins over his adversary, whom he considers his brother, but is still not victorious because he does not reach his goal. He wins over his religion (the fish), but life (the sea) makes sure he does not get what he wants by sending the sharks to destroy what he has won. Santiago did not give up; he ultimately won over his main adversary but did not get the meat of the fish as he had wanted. The ordeal destroyed him, but he did not give into the pain. Although he lives in the end of the book, a part of him died. But it died a hero.

Santiago as an undefeated hero. Santiago's contemporary fishermen go out to fish with nets, which is a commercially profitable practice. It, however, requires little skill; it is nothing more than a chore. After 84 days without catch, Santiago sustains himself on what little food a bartender sends him out of pity. Yet he still waits for his big fish. It is more important to him than hunger. And the big fish finally arrives.

Santiago ignored hunger to prove his fishing prowess, but he is not entitled to keep his catch. His amazing fortune is balanced against his material loss. While being able to come out on top in his struggle against the fish and against the pain and frailness of his own body, this is to be his only reward. His fortunes turn when he refocuses from passion for catching the fish to greed for profiting from it. The sea does not reward greed.

Yet Santiago has not lost. One recurring theme in Hemingway's works can be summarized by his quote: "A man can be destroyed but not defeated." Santiago is punished for his greed, but nothing can take away the glory of his achievement.




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