17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world icon

17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world



Название17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world.


William Harrison Faulkner is one of the most famous American modernist writers. Brightness and diversity of his language appeared under the influence of the oral tradition of the South of the USA with the special humor, love for biblical and gothic motives, and a great number of the readers. Among the most loving books of Faulkner were Bible, Iliad, Odyssey, Shakespeare, “Don Quixote”, Moby Dick, novels by Dostoevsky and Conrad.

It is important to mention that the author of “The sound and the fury” was born in the North of the country and knew the legends of the planter since childhood. But he doesn’t make the North look perfect – he sees all its drawbacks that brought this civilization to the end. Faulkner opposes the north to the south and the latter in his perception is the world of Yankees, banks and love for money – Jason is trying to be such a person and is criticized by the author.

The events of all the novels of the author take place in the imaginary land in Mississippi, where live 15611 people carefully counted by the author. The peculiarity of the Faulkner’s creativity is in the fact that on the base of the regional past he puts the problem of the modern people who suffers because of the decline of the west. The fear of time grows in the creativity of the author to the mania, accompanied by the cruelty, suicidal ideas, strange desires – incest, Sodomy, murder of the close relatives, black and white couples. His characters are afraid of time and their fear result in the conflicts of fathers and sons, mothers and fathers, sons and lovers. Through the technique of the flood of the conscience he shows deep psychological analysis of his strange heroes – idiots, mad people, murderers. Together with “Ulysses” and “To the lighthouse” the novels of Faulkner have become the examples of the literature of modernism, where the borders between romanticism, naturalism and symbolism are very slight.

The creativity of Faulkner can be divided into three main parts according to their themes and the method of narration. To the first group belong the novels that actually brought fame to the author and are written in a very difficult technique. Among them: “The sound and the fury”, “as I lay dying”, “Absalom! Absalom!”, “the bear”. They are devoted to the mystery of history and time. He tries to find the solution of the problem in the past of the destroyed American west. Trying to find out the reasons of the destruction of the west Faulkner’s heroes do not succeed but usually become the victims of time.

The second group is devoted to racial and natural philosophy problems. The novels “Light in August”, “The hamlet”, “Intruder in the dust” are close to the psychological novels of ideas and are not so difficult in their form.

To the third group belong the novels written in the form of parodies, f. e. “Sanctuary”, that plays with the stamps of the gangster novel, and novel – “A rose for Emily”.

One of the most important novels in the literary works of William Faulkner is “The Sound and the fury”. To understand the depth of this novel we should remember that in 1920-s Faulkner started writing prose after the years of work at the symbolist poetry. In the perception of symbolists the difference between the poetry and the prose is very faint. It is not important what to write but how to write. Each literary work is percepted as a combination of ideas and forms. “The sound and the Fury” presents a unity of the sound – the poetical form of the novel and fury – author’s desire to put the words on the paper, to tell something to the readers.

The most important character of the novel, according to Faulkner himself, is Caddie Compson. In the novel she is real and even developing – a girl, a young woman dating with the actor, a woman left by the family with the child – and unreal because her opinion is not shown in the novel. We get only four different view points of her actions and four technique of narration adequate to these view points – 7th of April 1928, 2 June 1910, 6 of April 1928, 8th of April 1928. The 6, 7 and 8th of April happen to be Good Friday, Good Saturday and Easter, on the 2nd of June 1910 Kwentin Kompson committed a suicide because of love to his sister.

The first three parts of the novel are in the technique of the flood of conscience and show the world of the three different people: 33years old idiot Bengy, student-intellectual Cventin, and realistic and pragmatic Jason, who has to earn the living of himself, his mother, brother-idiot, Kventina – unlawful daughter of caddie, black servants. For th first person Caddie is the most close person, for the second – the subject of love and hate, for the last – the main reason of all the misfortunes. The fourth opinion is impersonal. At the same time forcing through all the four parts of the novel the reader gets the full picture of the family and of the society that couldn’t be written better by for example a realist.

The first part of the novel is very difficult as it is difficult to grasp the meaning of the thoughts – though he has no thoughts – of an idiot. But Bengie is not only a martyr – he is cut and he will be sent to the lunatic asylum – he is also a poet because he hears interesting thing – “hear the roof”, “she smells trees”. Faulkner’s attitude towards the ill people is extremely positive/. Bengie cannot think but he feels the most important events – the death of grandmother, father and Kventin, the danger coming from the red tie of Kventina’s boyfriend. In 1950-s Faulkner compared the mind of an idiot with the mirror that reflect nothing but truth. That’s why hardly understandable picture drawn by the Bengie’s mind is then enlarged and developed by the next three parts of the narration.

The role of the second part of the novel is different. In contrast to Bengie Kventin Compson is an embodiment of intellect, order and irony. He is alike Hamlet, quarreling with father and mother, and trying to find out when did the western time ruined and what he should do to repair it. Giving the opposite ideas, views and characters Faulkner manages to keep the readers interested, showing one side of the problem after another. In this part the fear of time is extremely vivid, Kventin even breaks the watch presented to him by his father, but they still go. Being in love with his sister Kventin committees a suicide one week after her sudden marriage accepting the guilt of her being pregnant. In 1910 Kventin is 20 years old, he is the hope of the whole family. To let him study in Oxford a square mile of land is sold. In his speech we see reminiscences from Bible, Shakespeare, Shelley, Eliot, Houseman. This chapter is a talk of the two persons inside the head of Kventin, who discuss the necessity of the suicide. That’s why sometimes his thoughts switch from the events of the day to the quarrel with himself, reflections of the past events and talks.

The third part of the novel shows Jason Kompson – the last capable of functioning member of the family. On the one hand, he is a negative character, angry, mean, racist, but on the other – his fate is not less tragic than the one of his brothers. He is sailing in the river of time and as well as other Compsons he is unable to struggle with it. He thinks that he is an angel saving the lives of his relatives and doesn’t notice all the harm he does to them. This part is very logical it puts everything into right places turning romantic picture of the characters into a series of usual and unpleasant facts: mad father, complaining mother, son-idiot, sister- hussy.

The function of the fourth part is not quite obvious. All the events are explained in the previous parts of the novel. Some critics said that the most important image of the last part is Dilsy the symbol of folk wisdom, firmness and belief. On the other hand, the last part is written from the point of view of the author. From my point of view, the author is omniscient, he doesn’t express his own attitude. But showing no personal opinion this part gives the picture of the whole American west as of something and already dead. At the same time, we see the circle composition – Kventina running with the actor. It may have two meanings: the necessity of the unity of the west with the east in order to survive or the idea that Kventine will give birth to another Bengie or Kventin or Jason or somebody who will be stronger in the face of the difficulties of life.




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