Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т.Харди.
John Galsworthy (1867 – 1933)
John Galsworthy was one of the last representatives of Critical realism in English literature. He was a novelist, dramatist, short story writer and essayist. His works gives critical picture of the English bourgeois society at the beginning of the 20th century, he deals with social problems. Galsworthy wanted to revive the realistic traditions of his predecessors.
Galsworthy was born at Kingston Hill in Surrey, England into an established wealthy bourgeois family. He studied law at Oxford, but was more interested in literature than in law. He gave up his practice and started traveling. He came to Russia in 1891 to the Crimea. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1932. Much of his energy was devoted to the Pen-club; he was a president of it until his death in 1933.
His first work is The Island Pharisees (1904) in which he describes the English privileged class. In his works The Country House (1907), Fraternity (1909), The Patrician (1911), the Dark Flower (1913) and The Freelands (1915) the author criticizes country squires, the aristocracy and artists and reveals deep sympathy for strong passions, sincerity and true love.
His notable works is The Forsyte Saga (1906 - 1921) which consists of three novels and two interludes.
The Man Of Property, 1906
(interlude) Indian Summer of a Forsyte, 1918
In Chancery, 1920
(interlude) Awakening, 1920
To Let, 1921
The Forsyte Saga is followed by A Modern Comedy, also a trilogy, consisting of three novels and two interludes.
The White Monkey (1926)
The Silver Spoon (1926)
The swan Song (1928)
A Silent Wooing (interlude)
The last trilogy is called End of the Chapter. The three novels are:
Maid in Waiting (1931)
Flowering Wildness (1932)
Over the river (1933)
We can see development of Galsworthy’s creative work: in the first trilogy he criticizes the commercial world of the Forsytes and the main character Soames, the man of property. The cycle is considered to be the author’s peak of Critical realism. In his later works, the second and the third trilogies, written after the Second World War his criticism becomes less sharp. The old generation of the Forsytes does not seem as bad to the author as compared to the new one. Soames almost becomes a positive character.
Galsworthy was also a playwright, his plays are addressed the class system and social issues, two of the best known being Strife (1909), Justice about British prisons, The Forest about British imperialism.
In his creative work Galsworthy was strongly influenced by Russian and French literature. The realism of Tolstoy and Turgenev was a model to him and helped in describing nature and people.
The analysis of Man of Property
The Forsyte Saga is a history of three generations of the Forsyte family from the 80-s of eth 19th century to the 20-s of the 20th century.
The Man of Property is written in the genre of family chronicle. We are given a story of a family, three generations are present in the novel and even the readers get to know about the oldest, forth generation, Dossit Forsyte. We get closely acquainted with several families: of Soames and of Old Jolyon and his son’s family. Every generation represents the stage of development of the society in general.
Besides the epoch is realistically depicted in the novel: it is the end of the Victorian Age, its golden age, decay and downfall. In the preface of the author to the novel Galsworthy explains us the title of his work: “The Forsyte Saga” which at first referred only to the first part which is now “Man of Property”. And here is the first hint of writer’s irony and the hint to the whole style and tone in which this work is written. The word “Saga” is used to depict a heroic epos about famous men but here it is used with irony; besides it is a long story and it also tells us about the struggle of hostile forces. Galsworthy says that this chronicle is not about the scientific research of the end of the century with its development of bicycle, car, plane, and appearance of chip press, downfall of villages and growth of cities. But the main theme is the chaos which is brought by Beauty and passion into the world of property. The irony of the author is also in the comparison of life of aunts Ann, Julia and Hester with the Ancient Egypt mummies which had all necessary things for their life after death.
The Man of Property is a social realistic novel: the author shows the Forsyte family as a small unit of English upper middle class society of his own time. Family is total reflection of society and even we have a feeling that their large family is the society because the Forsytes are everywhere.
The structure of the novel also serves the author’s idea to present all aspects of life to the readers: some of the chapters are like episodes of their life. We get acquainted with such traditional things as: the engagement of the Forsytes (June and Phillip), a visit to the opera and to the theatre, a dinner at Swithin’s, the funeral of Aunt Ann, the ball at Roger’s.
The second feature of realism is that The Forsytes possess all features typical of their class as a whole and they have to obey the laws which govern it. He who disobeys these laws is expelled from a society as in the example of young Jolyon who became an artist (not honorable and profitable profession), left his wife and daughter and lived with a foreign governess, as he became an outcast of this society. All the laws of the family are regulated at Timothy’s residence.
Each Forsyte represents the most characteristic features: extreme individualism, egoism, an ability never to give themselves away, contempt for everything foreign, a strong sense of property and money worship. The very essence of Forsytism is shown in the chapter Diagnosis of a Forsyte in which young Jolyon tells Bosinney about typical features of a Forsyte.
A Forsyte takes a practical view of things, and a practical view of things is based on a strong sense of property. A Forsyte never gives himself away.
There are some other features of the Forsytes:
Tenacity (цепкость) – this feature is described by Galsworthy in the introduction with a great sense of humour: he compares their family with a tree with new and older plants, branches. “When a Forsyte was engaged, married or born, the Forsyte was present, the Forsytes were present; when a Forsyte died – but no Forsyte had died yet, they did not die, death being contrary to their principle, they took precautions against it”. “Of all forms of property their respective healths naturally concerned them most”.
An ability to form a formidable unit (забронировать)
It is very surprising that inside the family the Forsytes had no liking for each other, but when they came in touch with a person that was not of their world, they formed “a formidable unit” and were ready to fight that stranger. For example, this is the situation with the engagement of June with Philip Bosinney.
Snobbery is the characteristics of all Forsytes. It is shown by their attitude to Bosinney. They didn’t like his shabby hat, clothes. One of the most typical snobs is Swithin Forsyte who likes wealth and luxury. And Galsworthy shows his dislike of this character in the chapter Dinner at Swithin’s. family dinners of the Forsytes have certain traditions.
The Forsytes estimate people in the same way they estimate things. A person who earns a great sum of money is respected by them; a person who doesn’t is despised by them. A profession for a Forsyte is only honorable when it brings good money, when it doesn’t (in case of Bosinney), it is not approved and this person is not accepted in their society. This is also the case with young Jolyon and Irene, Soames’s wife. Her father was a professor and “there’s no money in that”. The choice of a wedding gift, in the Forsytes’s opinion, depended very much on the bridegroom. If he was rich enough, prosperous-looking, it was more necessary to give him nice things, he would expect them. If he were poor, it was not necessary to buy expensive gifts, he didn’t deserve them.
All Forsytes are extremely practical. They won’t do a thing without a definite aim. When Swithin invites the family to his dinner, he tries to calculate how many glasses of wine his guests will drink not to put an extra bottle. It is the worst thing for a Forsyte to realize that he had paid more for a thing than he had planned or should have paid for it. And of course the example with the new house of Soames shows how painful it is for him to give extra money for it.
Sense of property is the most characteristic feature of the family. The epigraph to novel is from Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice “You will answer … the slaves are ours” speaks for itself in fact the word “Forsytism” became a synonym of “property”. We can just remember their attitude to this: Old Jolyon was so careful to make a will as the will is the last word on which he was worth, in the will there is all his property and belongings are listed”.
And the man of property in the first novel is Soames Forsyte, the main character. In his world money can do everything, it governs the world. He is sure that everything can be bought. And he regards his wife as property too. Irene has no money of her own and thus it is enough to make her love and obey her rich husband. That was the Forsyte’s concept of love and marriage. . The author tells us that Irene didn’t want to marry Soames, though he buys her clothes, jewels. She can’t love him. And when she left him, she didn’t take these things and Soames understood how she hated him. At that time Soames understood that even having much money he was unhappy.
Thus the main conflict of the novel is the conflict between love, beauty and property, money worship. In the novel Irene represents beauty and Bosinney represents true art. But for the Forsytes a piece of art is only valuable when it costs a lot of money. It is very interesting but in the novel the house which Soames is building is the powerful symbol and besides for every person it represents its own thing. For Bosinney he house is the chance to express himself as an architect, it is an embodiment of real beauty and he puts his whole heart in it. For Soames it is nothing but a piece of property. The work of artist is regarded by him as an article for sale and he tries to pay for it as little as possible. He could not accept the fact that Bosinney had spent more money on the decoration of the house than had been agreed upon it. He wanted to have “a first-rate man for a fourth-rate fee” as Bosinney expressed it. And for him the house represents the crash of his illusions, because while he was becoming the owner of it, he was losing his wife. For Irene the house at first is the embodiment of her captivity, because Soames doesn’t want Irene to communicate with people. On the one hand Irene would have liked the house because it was beautiful and was a piece of art, but on the other hand now she hates it because it is connected with dead Bosinney.
This conflict is solved quite realistically: Bosinney, being in debts, was run over by the horses and Irene returned to Soames.
The innovation of Galsworthy is that he deepened the psychological analysis of the characters and used more complicated devices of depicting characters. For example, the author describes Irene’s appearance, but never tells us about directly her thoughts and feelings. The reader learns it only indirectly. The figure of Irene is present through the senses of other characters. Even her romance with Bosinney is shown through the impressions of other characters (chapters Drive with Swithin and Meeting at the Botanical). Even Irene’s despair after Bosinney’s death is shown through the impressions of her husband. Irene and Bosinney are the characters that are opposed to the Forsytes with all their prejudices and negative features.
The author also have sympathy with Old Jolyon, Young Jolyon and June, the possessive instincts of them are not so strong as those of the other members of the family. The character of Old Jolyon is shown in development. At the beginning of the book he is a typical Forsyte. His son’s marriage to the governess causes his indignation. He disinherited young Jolyon and didn’t want to see him. Later he was sorry and did all to help his son’s second family. At the close of his life Old Jolyon came to realize that there was something more precious in life than property.
|Программа мастерства и творчества педагогов, обеспечивающих учебно-воспитательный процесс в оу|
Способность к творчеству. Творчество – процесс создания нового. Педагогическое творчество – творчество, направленное на повышение...
|Л. С. Выготский возражает против того, что творчество удел избранных. Именно из этого вывода, сделанного замечательным психологом, проистекает возвышенная и оптимистическая педагогическая идея, связанная с воспитан|
«Воображение и творчество» писал: «Если понимать творчество в его истинном психологическом смысле, как создание нового, легко придти...
|Тема: Творчество в жизни человека и общества|
Углубить понятие "творчество", Перевод понятия с исторического уровня в философский, лингвистический, нравственный аспекты
|Формирование фольклора = формированию языка|
Фольклор – искусство слова, следовательно обладает такими свойствами как художественность, поэтичность. Унт (устное народное творчество)...
|Жизнь и творчество И. Бунина Реферат По литературе Ученика 9б класса Кухаренко Олега 2000 год Жизнь и творчество И. А||Творчество А. Т. Твардовского пу 12 реферат творчество А. Т. Твардовского учащаясяся 276 гр. КучероваЛ. Е. Проверила: преподаватель литературы Карпова Н. К|
|Учебника по теме: «Жизнь и творчество Л. Н. Толстого»|
Проект разработан для изучения темы «Творчество Л. Н. Толстого» в 10 классе на уроках литературы
|Text analysis The apple-tree by John Galsworthy|
«The apple-tree» the author tells us about two young guys, Frank Ashurst and Robert Garton, who after their last year together at...
2. /предмет-методическое творчество/предмет-методическое творчество.docx
|«Как уходили кумиры? Творчество Татьяны Снежиной»|
|История оперных жанров|
Цель настоящей работы — проследить развитие различных жанров оперного искусства в историческом разрезе и через творчество различных...