Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy icon

Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy



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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т.Харди.


John Galsworthy (18671933)

John Galsworthy was one of the last representatives of Critical realism in English literature. He was a novelist, dramatist, short story writer and essayist. His works gives critical picture of the English bourgeois society at the beginning of the 20th century, he deals with social problems. Galsworthy wanted to revive the realistic traditions of his predecessors.

Galsworthy was born at Kingston Hill in Surrey, England into an established wealthy bourgeois family. He studied law at Oxford, but was more interested in literature than in law. He gave up his practice and started traveling. He came to Russia in 1891 to the Crimea. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1932. Much of his energy was devoted to the Pen-club; he was a president of it until his death in 1933.

Literary work

His first work is The Island Pharisees (1904) in which he describes the English privileged class. In his works The Country House (1907), Fraternity (1909), The Patrician (1911), the Dark Flower (1913) and The Freelands (1915) the author criticizes country squires, the aristocracy and artists and reveals deep sympathy for strong passions, sincerity and true love.

His notable works is The Forsyte Saga (1906 - 1921) which consists of three novels and two interludes.

The Man Of Property, 1906

(interlude) Indian Summer of a Forsyte, 1918

In Chancery, 1920

(interlude) Awakening, 1920

To Let, 1921

The Forsyte Saga is followed by A Modern Comedy, also a trilogy, consisting of three novels and two interludes.

The White Monkey (1926)

The Silver Spoon (1926)

The swan Song (1928)

A Silent Wooing (interlude)

Passers-by (interlude)

The last trilogy is called End of the Chapter. The three novels are:

Maid in Waiting (1931)

Flowering Wildness (1932)

Over the river (1933)

We can see development of Galsworthy’s creative work: in the first trilogy he criticizes the commercial world of the Forsytes and the main character Soames, the man of property. The cycle is considered to be the author’s peak of Critical realism. In his later works, the second and the third trilogies, written after the Second World War his criticism becomes less sharp. The old generation of the Forsytes does not seem as bad to the author as compared to the new one. Soames almost becomes a positive character.

Galsworthy was also a playwright, his plays are addressed the class system and social issues, two of the best known being Strife (1909), Justice about British prisons, The Forest about British imperialism.

In his creative work Galsworthy was strongly influenced by Russian and French literature. The realism of Tolstoy and Turgenev was a model to him and helped in describing nature and people.

The analysis of Man of Property

The Forsyte Saga is a history of three generations of the Forsyte family from the 80-s of eth 19th century to the 20-s of the 20th century.

The Man of Property is written in the genre of family chronicle. We are given a story of a family, three generations are present in the novel and even the readers get to know about the oldest, forth generation, Dossit Forsyte. We get closely acquainted with several families: of Soames and of Old Jolyon and his son’s family. Every generation represents the stage of development of the society in general.

Besides the epoch is realistically depicted in the novel: it is the end of the Victorian Age, its golden age, decay and downfall. In the preface of the author to the novel Galsworthy explains us the title of his work: “The Forsyte Saga” which at first referred only to the first part which is now “Man of Property”. And here is the first hint of writer’s irony and the hint to the whole style and tone in which this work is written. The word “Saga” is used to depict a heroic epos about famous men but here it is used with irony; besides it is a long story and it also tells us about the struggle of hostile forces. Galsworthy says that this chronicle is not about the scientific research of the end of the century with its development of bicycle, car, plane, and appearance of chip press, downfall of villages and growth of cities. But the main theme is the chaos which is brought by Beauty and passion into the world of property. The irony of the author is also in the comparison of life of aunts Ann, Julia and Hester with the Ancient Egypt mummies which had all necessary things for their life after death.

The Man of Property is a social realistic novel: the author shows the Forsyte family as a small unit of English upper middle class society of his own time. Family is total reflection of society and even we have a feeling that their large family is the society because the Forsytes are everywhere.

The structure of the novel also serves the author’s idea to present all aspects of life to the readers: some of the chapters are like episodes of their life. We get acquainted with such traditional things as: the engagement of the Forsytes (June and Phillip), a visit to the opera and to the theatre, a dinner at Swithin’s, the funeral of Aunt Ann, the ball at Roger’s.

The second feature of realism is that The Forsytes possess all features typical of their class as a whole and they have to obey the laws which govern it. He who disobeys these laws is expelled from a society as in the example of young Jolyon who became an artist (not honorable and profitable profession), left his wife and daughter and lived with a foreign governess, as he became an outcast of this society. All the laws of the family are regulated at Timothy’s residence.

Each Forsyte represents the most characteristic features: extreme individualism, egoism, an ability never to give themselves away, contempt for everything foreign, a strong sense of property and money worship. The very essence of Forsytism is shown in the chapter Diagnosis of a Forsyte in which young Jolyon tells Bosinney about typical features of a Forsyte.

A Forsyte takes a practical view of things, and a practical view of things is based on a strong sense of property. A Forsyte never gives himself away.

There are some other features of the Forsytes:

Tenacity (цепкость) – this feature is described by Galsworthy in the introduction with a great sense of humour: he compares their family with a tree with new and older plants, branches. “When a Forsyte was engaged, married or born, the Forsyte was present, the Forsytes were present; when a Forsyte died – but no Forsyte had died yet, they did not die, death being contrary to their principle, they took precautions against it”. “Of all forms of property their respective healths naturally concerned them most”.

An ability to form a formidable unit (забронировать)

It is very surprising that inside the family the Forsytes had no liking for each other, but when they came in touch with a person that was not of their world, they formed “a formidable unit” and were ready to fight that stranger. For example, this is the situation with the engagement of June with Philip Bosinney.

Snobbery is the characteristics of all Forsytes. It is shown by their attitude to Bosinney. They didn’t like his shabby hat, clothes. One of the most typical snobs is Swithin Forsyte who likes wealth and luxury. And Galsworthy shows his dislike of this character in the chapter Dinner at Swithin’s. family dinners of the Forsytes have certain traditions.

The Forsytes estimate people in the same way they estimate things. A person who earns a great sum of money is respected by them; a person who doesn’t is despised by them. A profession for a Forsyte is only honorable when it brings good money, when it doesn’t (in case of Bosinney), it is not approved and this person is not accepted in their society. This is also the case with young Jolyon and Irene, Soames’s wife. Her father was a professor and “there’s no money in that”. The choice of a wedding gift, in the Forsytes’s opinion, depended very much on the bridegroom. If he was rich enough, prosperous-looking, it was more necessary to give him nice things, he would expect them. If he were poor, it was not necessary to buy expensive gifts, he didn’t deserve them.

Practicality

All Forsytes are extremely practical. They won’t do a thing without a definite aim. When Swithin invites the family to his dinner, he tries to calculate how many glasses of wine his guests will drink not to put an extra bottle. It is the worst thing for a Forsyte to realize that he had paid more for a thing than he had planned or should have paid for it. And of course the example with the new house of Soames shows how painful it is for him to give extra money for it.

Sense of property is the most characteristic feature of the family. The epigraph to novel is from Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice “You will answer … the slaves are ours” speaks for itself in fact the word “Forsytism” became a synonym of “property”. We can just remember their attitude to this: Old Jolyon was so careful to make a will as the will is the last word on which he was worth, in the will there is all his property and belongings are listed”.

And the man of property in the first novel is Soames Forsyte, the main character. In his world money can do everything, it governs the world. He is sure that everything can be bought. And he regards his wife as property too. Irene has no money of her own and thus it is enough to make her love and obey her rich husband. That was the Forsyte’s concept of love and marriage. . The author tells us that Irene didn’t want to marry Soames, though he buys her clothes, jewels. She can’t love him. And when she left him, she didn’t take these things and Soames understood how she hated him. At that time Soames understood that even having much money he was unhappy.

Thus the main conflict of the novel is the conflict between love, beauty and property, money worship. In the novel Irene represents beauty and Bosinney represents true art. But for the Forsytes a piece of art is only valuable when it costs a lot of money. It is very interesting but in the novel the house which Soames is building is the powerful symbol and besides for every person it represents its own thing. For Bosinney he house is the chance to express himself as an architect, it is an embodiment of real beauty and he puts his whole heart in it. For Soames it is nothing but a piece of property. The work of artist is regarded by him as an article for sale and he tries to pay for it as little as possible. He could not accept the fact that Bosinney had spent more money on the decoration of the house than had been agreed upon it. He wanted to have “a first-rate man for a fourth-rate fee” as Bosinney expressed it. And for him the house represents the crash of his illusions, because while he was becoming the owner of it, he was losing his wife. For Irene the house at first is the embodiment of her captivity, because Soames doesn’t want Irene to communicate with people. On the one hand Irene would have liked the house because it was beautiful and was a piece of art, but on the other hand now she hates it because it is connected with dead Bosinney.

This conflict is solved quite realistically: Bosinney, being in debts, was run over by the horses and Irene returned to Soames.

The innovation of Galsworthy is that he deepened the psychological analysis of the characters and used more complicated devices of depicting characters. For example, the author describes Irene’s appearance, but never tells us about directly her thoughts and feelings. The reader learns it only indirectly. The figure of Irene is present through the senses of other characters. Even her romance with Bosinney is shown through the impressions of other characters (chapters Drive with Swithin and Meeting at the Botanical). Even Irene’s despair after Bosinney’s death is shown through the impressions of her husband. Irene and Bosinney are the characters that are opposed to the Forsytes with all their prejudices and negative features.

The author also have sympathy with Old Jolyon, Young Jolyon and June, the possessive instincts of them are not so strong as those of the other members of the family. The character of Old Jolyon is shown in development. At the beginning of the book he is a typical Forsyte. His son’s marriage to the governess causes his indignation. He disinherited young Jolyon and didn’t want to see him. Later he was sorry and did all to help his son’s second family. At the close of his life Old Jolyon came to realize that there was something more precious in life than property.




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