1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии icon

1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии

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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии.

Этапы развития романтизма в Англии: предромантизм (У.Блейк, готический роман); ранний романтизм, Озерная школа (У.Уордсворт, С.Т.Кольридж, Р.Саути), теория воображения, философия природы. Поэзия позднего романтизма (Дж.Китс, П.Б.Шелли).

Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. The name "romantic" itself comes from the term "romance" which is a prose or poetic heroic narrative originating in medieval literature and romantic literature. Romanticism appeared in Germany, but the term appeared in England, English critics used it first.

The ideologies and events of the French Revolution are thought to have influenced the movement. Great French revolution brought the ideas of freedom, equality, liberty. English romanticists didn’t have strict conflicts with classicism as in France.

The romantic conflict is the conflict of the romantic hero with the real world. Romantic hero is a strong personality who wants to escape from this world to the ideal world. Romantic hero can not be understood by this world and he escapes to the ideal world, thus we have a romantic double world. The ideal world can be ideal past – Ancient times or Middle ages, Exotic east or an utopic future. And this ideal world is connected with the world of nature. Romanticists appealed to love, to historical heroes and they were interested in the national character of their heroes.

In every country romanticism had its own peculiarities. In Britain romanticists used the knowledge of previous epochs, they didn’t deny but took some aspects from Age of Enlightenment.

English romanticists developed new genre forms in poetry and historical novel. Oriental motives were very popular. In British Romanticism nature played a very important role, pantheism was one of its main philosophies.

English romanticism passed several stages:

1) End of the 18th century – preromanticism. William Blake

2) First decade of the 19th century – very active period. Lake school – Coleridge, Wordsworth, Southey. They formed the theory of romanticism. They looked for ideal world, freedom, nature and national spirit; also very religious.

3) Byron, Keats, Shelley. Declared the ideas of political freedom. Also Walter Scott.

William Blake (1757-1827) is the representative of preromanticism. He was a silver engraver and a poet. He illustrated many books (Divine comedy, Canterbury tales, the Bible). He had visions of spiritual, religious kind and they started to build his own model of life. He formed his own mythology full of emblematic personages, allegories.

His poetic books are “Songs of innocence” 1789, “Songs of experience” 1794

Songs of Innocence mainly consists of poems describing the innocence and joy of the natural world, advocating free love and a closer relationship with God. In the first part he showed his love to God, God is just, ever-loving, merciful here. At this time he was fascinated with ideas of Swedish philosopher of Swedenbourgh – ideas of dualism. A whole world is a spirit but we don’t see them, only through visions, creativity. Spirits of good and evil are fighting for human soul. For Blake innocence is not just lack of knowledge, but ability of instinctive belief, subconscious.

The lamb

The Garden of Eden

The second part is Songs of experience. 2 books have absolutely symmetrical structure which reflects the ideas of dualism. Sometimes the whole poems are reflected. Songs of Experience deals with the loss of innocence after exposure to the material world and all of its mortal sin during adult life, including works such as The Tyger. Poems here are darker, concentrating on more political and serious themes. Throughout both books, many poems fall into pairs, so that a similar situation or theme can be seen in both Innocence and Experience.

Tyger is the reflection of Lamb. Spirit of good and evil were made by the same creator. Thus we feel Apocalypses. According to the law: light can not exist without dark. The desire to understand the depths of universe makes the human existence full of sense and meaning. There are larger poems «The marriage of heaven and hell”, The book of Thed”, “The mental traveler”

Besides preromanticism in England is represented by gothic novel. There are several causes of development of gothic novel: 1) great English writers (Richardson and Fielding) die and the sophisticated readers demand new plots, complicated stories with mysteries, fiction etc. 2) at this time the philosophy of Enlightenment has crisis, people have doubts in logical and rational things and become interested in irrational and illogical.

The name of gothic novel comes from: 1) gothic – the Goths, the barbarian tribes associated with destruction of everything and with fear. 2) from Gothic style in architecture. The term "Gothic" came to be applied to the literary genre precisely because the genre dealt with such emotional extremes and very dark themes, and because it found its most natural settings in the buildings of this style - castles, mansions, and monasteries, often remote, crumbling, and ruined. It was a fascination with this architecture and its related art, poetry, and even landscape gardening that inspired the first wave of gothic novelists

Prominent features of gothic fiction include terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses.

The stock characters of gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatales, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jew and the Devil himself.

Important ideas concerning and regarding the Gothic include: Anti-Catholicism, especially criticism of Roman Catholic excesses such as the Inquisition (in southern European countries such as Italy and Spain); romanticism of an ancient Medieval past; melodrama; and parody (including self-parody).

The writers of gothic novels are Ann Radcliffe “The Mysteries of Udolpho”, Horace Walpole “The castle of Otranto”, Matthew Lewis “The Monk”.

Lake Group is a group of poets who were connected by their friendship and family relations. William Wordsworth, Samuel Coleridge and Robert Southey. They were all very religious.

Wordsworth’s aesthetic views, after his disappointment in French revolution he lost his belief in a man as a social being but he always considered a man to be a moral being. He came to the conclusion that social liberty must be built in the personal liberty. The way to escape is to escape to nature, to revive moral nature of a man, to give him personal liberty. Nature is this eternal and great infinity, it is the only way to open human abilities, to give way to the development of spiritual life, to make a person free.

The aim of poetry is to depict selected episodes from life which are connected with nature. The poet is the mediator between the world of nature and human’s world. The most important concept was the concept of imagination for them. It was the way to percept the spiritual side of nature.

To some extend Wordsworth was inclined to idealize the life of peasantry, simple people he thought that the life fits moral archetype. He used simple language of common people in romantic poetry.

He wrote a collection of poems with Coleridge. They decided to write a book “Poems and ballads” the preface was one of the first manifests of romanticism.

Wordsworth wrote a lot about nature. “The Prelude” was published after his death. He was working on it nearly all his life; it was a deep revealing of his thoughts, an intimate journal, a spiritual autobiography. He wrote a lot about his childhood in it. And nature showed its spirit to him.


Coleridge wrote a lot of political essays, but didn’t write much poetry. “The ancient Mariner” 1798. Many poems are not finished. The imagination was very important for him as a romantic concept. His view was neoplatonic because only through imagination a person can percept a real essence of things and its spirit. To some extend he had pantheistic ideas. “The Ancient Mariner” was pantheistic, in the form of fable, parable.

The third period of romanticism is associated with John Keats, Shelley, Byron. Their strategy was different, they were born in another age, they were not disappointed by the results of revolution. We can not unite them at one school, they were friends, but each of them worked in different way. They developed a genre of ode, romantic poets addressed love, beauty.

John Keats (1795-1821)

He is a very tragic and beautiful figure of British romanticism. He knew he was doomed to death and this influenced to his poetry. Keats is considered to be a predecessor of a theory “Art for Art’s sake”. He thought beauty is something eternal, but he never spoke about the lack of content, he looked for a beauty in real world, he regarded art to be a part of nature. “Sonnet” reflects Keat’s thoughts about forecoming death and about poet.

Nightingale – is a symbol for all romantics (love, art, night)

Shelley (1792-1822)

His poems are rebellious, he was closer to political life. “Prometheus unbound” 1818 – he depicts him as a hero who start a rebel against Zeus and he succeeds to do it. This poem is full of inner energy, a challenge to church. He left England forever, the last years are very creative.

Pantheistic adoration of nature was deep. The nature was the most mighty force in the world. It was the main source of inspiration, it was itself the greatest artist.

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