The sentence and the text
Most utterances consist of two or more sentence. Sentences in continual speech are interconnected both semantically and syntactically. Intosentational connections have come under linguistic investigation but recently. The highest lingual unit which was approached by traditional grammar as liable to syntactic study was the sentence. Scholars even specially stressed that to surpass the boundaries of the sentence was equal to surpassing the boundaries of grammar.In particular such an outstanding linguist as Bloomfield while recognizing the general semantic connections between sentences in the composition of texts as linguistically relevant at the same time pointed out that the sentence is the largest grammatically arranged linguistic form. However further studies in this field have demonstrated that sentences in speech do combine with one another on strictly syntactic lines in the formation of larger stretches of both oral talk and written text. The general idea of a sequence of sentences forming a text implies a strictly topical stretch of talk that is a continual succession of sentences centering on a common informative purpose of communication that is the text. In this sense the text can be interpreted as a lingual element with its two distinguished features: 1) semantic or topical unity 2) semantic or syntactic cohesion.
The primary division of sentence sequences in speech should be based on the communicative direction of their component sentences. From this point of view monologue sequences and dialogue sequences are to be discriminated. In a monologue sentences connected in a continual sequence are directed from one speaker to his one or several listeners. Thus the sequence of this type can be characterized as a one direction sequence.
*I want to tell you something. The law is not going to come between us. Do you hear what I am saying?
The first scholars who identified a succession of such sentences as a special syntactic unit were the Russian linguists Поспелов and Блоховский. The form called the unit in question a complex syntactic unity. The latter the supra phrasal unity. As different from this sentences in a dialogue sequence are uttered by the speaker’s interlocutors in turn so that they are directed as it were to meet one another. The sequence of this type should be characterized by two direction sequence.
- My people have lived there for nearly 3 hundred years.
- It’s a lovely house. You must be very proud of it.
The formation of one direction sequence is based on syntactic accumulation of sentences as different from syntactic composition of sentence making them into one composite sentence. Hence the supra phrasal unity of one direction can be called a cumulative sequence. The formation of two direction sequence is based on its sentences being positioned to meet one another. Hence this type of sentence connection may be called a cursive (встречный). The supra phrasal unity of two direction of cursive type is termed a dialogue unity. Sentences in a cumulative or one direction sequence are either prospectively or retrospectively. Prospective (cataphoric) sentence connection is effected by connective elements that relate a given sentence to one that is to follow it. In other words a prospective connection signals a continuation of speech. The sentence containing it is semantically incomplete.
*I tell you, one of two things must happen. Either out of that darkness, or the havens will fall.
As different from prospective sentence connection retrospective or anaphoric sentence connection is effected by connective elements that relate a given sentence or the one that proceeds it and is semantically complete by itself. Retrospection accumulation is the more important in ordinary speech. On the basis of the functional nature of connectors one direction sentence connection is divided into two fundamental types: conjunctive sentence connection and correlative sentence connection. Conjunctive sentence connection is effected by conjunction-like connector. To these belong: 1) regular conjunctions both coordinate and subordinate 2) adverbial and parenthetical sentence connectors (then, yet, however, consequently, hence, besides, moreover, nevertheless). Adverbial and parenthetical sentence connectors may be both specified that is functional and semi-functional words and non-specialized units performing the connective function (but just the same).
*There was no train till nearly 11 and she had to bear her impatience a best she could. At last it was time to start and out on your gloves.
Correlative senesce connection is effected by a pair of elements one of which the “succeedent” refers to the other “antecedent” used in the for-going sentence. By means of this reference the succeedent sentence is related to the proceeding one or else the proceeding sentence is related to the seceding one. As we see by its direction correlative accumulation may be either retrospective or prospective as different from conjunctive accumulation which is only retrospective. Correlative accumulation in its turn is divided into substitutional connection and representative connection. Substitutional connection is based on the use of substitutes.
*Glenda reed stood shivering a little on the seaside.
As substitute may have as its antecedent a clausal part of the proceeding sentence, the whole of preceding sentence or a larger stretch of the text.
Representative correlation is based on representative elements which refer to one another without the factor of replacement.
*I went home. Mary accepted my departure indifferently.
A supra phrasal unity like a sentence is a universal unit of language in so far as it is used in all the functional varieties of speech. A cumulative supra phrasal unity in writing is regularly expressed by a paragraph, but the two units are not wholly identical.
In the first place the paragraph is a stretch is written or typed literary text dilimite by a new or indented line and an incomplete line at the clause. As different from this the SPU as we have just seen is essentially a feature of al the varieties of speech, both oral and written, both literary and colloquial. In one second place the paragraph is a polifunctional unit of written speech and as such is used not only for the written representation of the SPU but also for the introduction of utterances of a dialogue defining a dialogue sequence into parts as well as for the introduction of separate points in various enumerations. In the third place the paragraph in a monologue speech can contain more than one SPU. In the forth place the paragraph in a monologue speed can contain only one sentence, on the other hand the SPU can not be prolonged beyond the limits of the paragraph. Since the paragraphs are the same as those of eth SPU. That is a characteristic finalizing tone and a pause. Besides we must bear in mind that both paragraphs containing more than 1 SPU and 1 sentence paragraphs are more or less occasional features of the monologue text. Thus we return to the initial thesis that the paragraph of though it is a literary compositional not a purely syntactic unit of the text still as a rule presents a cumulative SPU. These two units if not identical are closely correlative. Neither SPUs nor paragraphs form the upper limit of textual units of speech. Paragraphs are connected within the framework of larger elements of texts and make enough different paragraph groupings. Thus observe the process of accumulation as syntactic connection а separate sentences supra accumulation would be discriminated as connection of cumulative SPUs and paragraphs into larger textual unities of the corresponding higher subtopical status.
*he gave her a sharp look. She did not return it. Ala the same there was a sense of ill ease
Moreover even larger stretches of text the primary paragraph grouping can be supra cumulated to one another in the syntactic sense, such as chapters and other compositional divisions.
Supra sentential connections can not be demonstrative of the secondary sublevel role of the sentence as an element of syntax by the mere fact that all the cumulative and cursive relations in speech effected by no other unit than the sentence and by no other structure than the inner structure of the sentence. The sentence remains the central structural syntactic element in all the formations of topical significance. Thus even in the course of a detailed study of various types of SPUs the linguist comes to the conformation of eth classical truth that the two basic units of language are the word and the sentence. The word as a unit of nomination, the sentence as unit of predication.
|Reading 1 Read the text and see if you can sum up the writer's argument in one sentence||Sentence definitions|
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|The example sentence||Composite Sentence|
|The plan of syntactical analysis of the sentence||Документи|
1. /грамматика/01. The subject of Theoretical Grammar..doc
|1. Read and translate the text|