The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme. icon

The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.



НазваниеThe segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
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The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

Morphology №1.

The basic units of the morphological system of language.


The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme. The notion of allomorph. Classification of morphemes. The complete morphemic model of common English word. The definition of the word as a nominative unit of language formed by morphemes.


Language is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language units the three constituent parts inherent in the language itself. Theses are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Only the unity of these three elements makes a language

1. The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic structure of words. It follows from this that morphology as part of the grammatical theory faces 2 segmental units: morpheme and word. Thus in studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of its composition and functions. Continual texts can be divided into segments called morphs. Morph is defined as the smallest succession of phonemes (it can even be 1 phoneme) which possesses some definite meaning, can not be divided into smaller meaningful units and which is recurrent in various utterances.

*clear, clearly, clearness,, cleared, clears, unclear.

We can see that in all these words it is possible to single out one and the same succession of phonemes – clear which bears some definite meaning. It is essential to note that the remaining groups of phonemes after separating the succession clear – also occur in other words of the language. If we take the word clearly for instance the combination of phonemes –ly is recurrent in such words as greatly, strongly, strangely and others. The same holds true concerning the successions of phonemes –ness, -ed, un-, -s which thus acquire the status of a morph too. However there are some cases in which the recurrent successions of phonemes lack any positive meaning. This in particular can be said in relation to words as receive, conceive, deceive. The grouping of phonemes of –eive is recognized a morph on the basis of the fact that the remaining successions of phonemes re-, con-, p-, d- can be found in some other words of language.

*retain, contain, pertain, detain, recur, reflect.

2.Types of morphs.

Morphs may be ‘free’ and ‘bound’. Free morphs can be used independently as separate words (*clear). Bound morphs are used only as structural inseparable parts of words. In our case these are morphs –ly, -ness, -ed, -s, un-. Some morphs are termed ‘fused’. Fused morphs usually contain one or more phonemes in common. Thus the morphs real- and –ly nin the word really are fused, because the phoneme ‘l’ is equally shared by them.

3.Morpheme

Бархударов gives the following definition of morpheme. Morpheme represents a multitude of morphs which possess the same meaning and stand in relation of complementary distribution.

Clear – clearly – clearness – clarity – clarify

The first three words include the morph “clear”, the last two contain the morph “clear”/юOn the one hand these morphs are characterized by identical meanings. And on the other hand they are used in mutually excluding contexts. The morph “clear” is used independently and may be also followed by bound morphs. The morph “Clear” is always a bound one, associated with morphs “ity” and “ify”. Thus we say that morphs “clear” and “clear” stand in relation of complementary distribution. In other words the morphs “clear” and “clear” have mutually excluding contexts. Morphs which constitute of this morpheme, for example, morphs “clear” and “clear” are allomorphs of one and the same morpheme.

According to the traditional classification morphemes on the upper level are divided into rout morphemes and affixal morphemes (affixes). Routs express the concrete material part of the meaning of one word. Affixes may be of a lexico-semantic or grammatical-semantic character. The routs of notional words are classical lexical morphemes. The affixal morphemes include prefixes, suffixes and inflections. In the tradition of the English school grammatical suffixes are often referred as suffixes. Prefixes and lexical suffixes have word-building functions. Together with the root they form the stem of the word. Inflections or grammatical suffixes express various grammatical categories. Thus, the abstract complete morphemic model of the common English word if the following: prefix + root + lexical suffix +grammatical suffix


The word.

The word is a nominative unit of a language formed by morphemes. It enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component. That is a component indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative function. Together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence, a unit of information in the communication process.




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