Etymological peculiarities of the English word stock
1. The English word stock is characterized by great heterogeneity (разнородность). Why? The inhabitants of eth British Isles came into contact with different people and these contacts were naturally reflected in the language social, political and other factors outside the language are usually called extra linguistic factors. Several ways of invasions, the introduction of Christianity in the early days, the colonial policy of the British Empire in later days account for the great number of borrowed words in English. As a result the English word stock comprises a great number of words borrowed from almost all the languages of eth world. It is commonly believed that the total number of so-called native words doesn’t exceed 30 % of all the vocabulary units in modern English, 70 % being borrowed from Latin, Greek, French and other languages. In linguistic literature the term native is applied to words which belong to the original English stock known from the earliest manuscripts of the old English period. These manuscripts were few and the term is also applied to words the origin of which can’t be traced to any other language. The term native is applied not only to the oldest Anglo-Saxon but also to words coined later by means of various processes working in English from native material.
*ealue usey = always
Borrowed words (loan words) are words the origin of which can be traced to some other language outside English irrespective of a period of adoption. Not only words but word-building affixes may be borrowed. Distinction should be made between true borrowings or borrowings proper and words made of a morphemes borrowed from Latin and Greek.
*telephone – tele = far, phone = sound.
The origin of the borrowed words means the language in which it was created. The immediate source of borrowing is the language through which it was borrowed into English.
*table (French), origin – Latin
ink (French – Latin – Greek)
school (Latin – Greek)
Words may be borrowed through oral speech by immediate contacts between the peoples and through written speech by indirect contacts through books. Oral borrowings took place chiefly in the earl periods of history (through trade). They are usually short and have undergone more changes. Written borrowings preserve their spelling and sometimes pronunciation. They are often rather long and literary.
2. Words of native origin consist for the most part of very ancient elements: Indo – European, Germanic and English proper. The bulk of the old English word stock has been preserves although some words have passed outer existence. Almost all Indo-European words belong to very important groups: the auxiliary verb to be, some pronouns, most conjunctions, numerals from 1 to 4, notional words denoting parts of the body (arm, eye, foot), terms of kinship, phenomena of nature (sun, moon, stone, tree) , verbs (sit, stand), adjectives (red, white) etc.
Common Germanic words are even more numerous. They have parallels in German, Dutch, Icelandic and other Germanic languages (summer, winter, house, hope, shall, will, have, must, may, see). English Proper – path, lady, lord.
*hand enters 100 PU
3. Latin borrowings
The old Germanic tribes of angles, Saxes and jutes got to know Romans on the continent before these tribes invaded the British Isles. The earliest borrowings from Latin are wine (Вена), pound (понда), and inch (унция). These tribes bred cattle, they drank milk but they didn’t know how to make cheese or butter. So they learnt the art of cheese-making and butter-making from Romans. These tribes knew only apples. All other fruit are borrowed. So are the names of vegetables. Plant cup, kitchen, milk on the continent. After the Roman invasion on British Isles again some Latin words are borrowed into English.
*strata via = street way.
*wall – fortress
With the introduction of Christianity in the 7th century many religious terms appeared in English.
*bishop, monk, priest, candle, minster, school
The next influx of Latin borrowings was observed during Renaissance. Numerous translations of ancient authors called forth a number of bookish words: verbs – ending
–ate (create, accommodate, illustrate, participate),
-ct (act, elect, protect, direct),
-ute (constitute, distribute),
adjectives –ant, -ate, -ent (decent, evident important, privet, accurate).
Scandinavian borrowings began to penetrate into the every day language beginning with the 9th century (Vikings).
*to call, hap = happiness, luck = happy, happen, perhaps, fellow, husband, widow, to die, to starve, to want, to rise, to fit, mistake, anger, ill, weak, low etc.
*Words beginning with sk – sky, skin, skill, skirt, g – give, gate.
French borrowings (after Norman invasion). Some French words entered the English language even before the Norman invasion in 1066.
*castle, tower, mount, proud, pride. After invasion
Later borrowings retain French spelling and pronunciation.
16 century – bourgeois, machine, police, routine, campaign
19 century – atelier, millionaire, technics
These borrowings began to state that English ceased to be a Germanic language. Late French and Latin borrowings account for the appearance of long words of many syllable, mostly literary words. They added to the wealth of synonyms brought with them new affixes and gave rise to etymological doublets.
4. The etymology of words may be reflected in sound and graphic form.
Ff – affect, afford
Stress on the final syllable – French
Plural forms – phenomena, criteria (Greek)
Borrowed affixes: ab – abstract, af, ad – admire, abandon, ammunition
Borrowed root morphemes usually go together with borrowed affixes. Hybrids are comparatively rare. *readable, usually (y – native suffix).
Assimilation of loan (borrowed) is used to denote a conformation phonetical, morphological etc and its semantic structure.
Assimilation depends on the length of period, during which the word has been used in the receiving language upon its importance for communicational purpose and its frequency. All the borrowed words due to converse are assimilated more completely than literary borrowings. Assimilation classification of loan words can be only very general as no rigorous procedure for measuring it has so far been developed.
The following 3 groups may be suggested:
1. Completely assimilated loan words.
2. Partially assimilated loan words
3. Unassimilated loan words or barbarisms.
Completely assimilated loan words are found in all layers of old borrowings. They may belong to the first layer of Latin words borrowed. Completely assimilated French words are numerous and frequent (table, chair, face, figure). The number of completely assimilated loan words is many times greater than the number of partially assimilated ones. They follow all morphological, phonetic and orthoepic rules of English. Being very frequent they may occur as dominant words is synonymic groups. They take an active part in word formation. They’re indistinguishable phonetically. Many f them are included in Lorge’s Dictionary of 50 most frequent words.
*Act – Latin, age – French, die – Scandinavian
Partially assimilated loan words can be subdivided into subgroups:
1) loan words not assimilated semantically because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country.
*sari – Indian, sombrero – Spanich, shah, toreador, bie - богач (Средняя Азия)
2) loan words not assimilated grammatically, e.g. nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek will keep their original spelling: crisis, date, bacillus.
3) so alongside with peculiarities or stress they may contain sounds that are not standard of English language and don’t occur in native words: police, prestige, sabotage
4) not completely assimilated graphically; ballet, buffet, corps. Some words may keep diactric mark: café, cliché.
Unassimilated loan words or barbarisms – words from other languages said by French people in conversation or writing but not assimilated in anyway and there are responding English equivalent.
*adio – Italian – bye.
Translation loans – кальки – are words and expressions in language of the material already existing in language but according to patterns are borrowed.
* vaterland – (fatherland) – отечество
*meisturstuck – masterpiece
*self-service – самообслуживание
*wall newspaper - стенгазета
The term semantic loan means the development of new meaning under the influence of other language.
*Pioneer – пионер, первооткрыватель
Etymological doublets of different origin
They are words that have something in common.
*shirt (native) – scirt (Scandinavian)
Their phonemicship is different and yet there is a certain resemblance. Their meanings are different too but easily associated (clothing). Such words are called etymological doublets. Etymological doublets may be 2 borrowings from different languages which are historically descended from some root.
Some words borrowed from French have Latin root.
*canal – Latin, channel – French
Still their are other words borrowed from some language twice but in different periods.
*cavalry – Norman French, chivalry – Parisian French,
*jool – Norman French, jail – Parisian French
It is often the case that the word is borrowed by several languages and not just by one. Such words usually convey notions which are significant for communication. Many of them are of Latin or Greek origin. Most names of sciences: physics, mathematics, art words – theatre, primadonna, political words frequently are used. French revolution brought a number of international words: radio, telephone.
The English language also contributed a considerable number of international words to world. Among them sport terms occupy the main position.
Fruits and food stuff imported from exotic countries.
International words are mainly borrowings. The outward similarity of English son – сын – sohn should not lead one to quite false conclusion that they are international words. The represent of the Indo-European group in each respective language are cognates (слова общего происхождения) s or words of the same etymological roots aren’t borrowings.
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