Semasiology. Its object and problems icon

Semasiology. Its object and problems

НазваниеSemasiology. Its object and problems
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1. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/Question3. History.doc
2. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/Question4. History.doc
3. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/История языка 1.doc
4. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/История языка 2.doc
5. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/История языка 3.doc
6. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/История языка 5.doc
7. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/History of the English Language/история языка 4.doc
8. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question1. Lexiology.doc
9. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question2. Lexicology.doc
10. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question3. Lexicology..doc
11. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Lexicology/Question4. Lexicology..doc
12. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question1. Phonetics.doc
13. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question2. Phonetics.doc
14. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question3. Phonetics.doc
15. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/Phonetics/Question4. Phonetics.doc
16. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Morphology.doc
17. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question1. Morphology.doc
18. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question1. Syntax.doc
19. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Morphology.doc
20. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question2. Syntax.doc
21. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/Question3. Morphology.doc
22. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/grammar/The sentence and the text.doc
23. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/~$вопрос лит-ра.doc
24. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии.doc
25. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/10 вопрос лит-ра.doc
26. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/10. Теккерей.doc
27. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/11. Основные направления английской литературы конца 19.doc
28. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/11вопрос лит-ра.doc
29. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/11вопрос.doc
30. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/12. Творчество Голсуорси.doc
31. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/13 вопрос лит-ра.doc
32. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/13. Влияние натурализма на американскую литературу конца 19.doc
33. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/14. Твен.doc
34. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/15 вопрос лит-ра.doc
35. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/15. Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века.doc
36. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/16. Основные тенденции развития американского романа в первой половине 20 века.doc
37. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/17 вопрос лит-ра.doc
38. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/17. Особенности художественного мира Фолкнера.doc
39. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/18 вопрос лит-ра.doc
40. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/18. Творчество Хэмингуэя.doc
41. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/19. Английский философский роман второй половины 20 века.doc
42. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/2 вопрос лит-ра.doc
43. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/2. Поэзия английского романтизма.doc
44. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/20. Постмодернизм в английской литературе Барнс.doc
45. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/21 вопрос лит-ра.doc
46. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/21. Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны.doc
47. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/3. Жанр исторического романа в творчестве В.doc
48. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4 вопрос лит-ра.doc
49. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/4. Творчество Байрона как вершина английского романтизма.doc
50. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/5 вопрос лит-ра.doc
51. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/5 и 6.Специфика американского романтизма.doc
52. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/7. Творчество По.doc
53. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/8. Творчество Диккенса.doc
54. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/9. Английский викторианский женский роман.doc
55. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/Barns.doc
56. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/~$. Английский философский роман второй половины 20 века.doc
57. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/Краткие.doc
58. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/имена.doc
59. /ответы на вопросы к госнику/литра/писатели и даты.doc
The Norman Conquest
Major Changes in the sound system in Middle English
Old English. General characteristics
2. Old English Phonetics and Grammar
The Norman Conquest
5. Tendencies of New English Language Development
4. Middle English phonetics and grammar
Definition and aims of the course, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics. The lexical system of the language. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations.
Lexicology №2. Word-building
Semasiology. Its object and problems
Native words and borrowed words. The source of borrowings and the origin of borrowed words. Ways of borrowing
The phoneme, the allophone. Distinctive features of phonemes. Complementary distribution. Free variations. The functions of the phoneme. Modifications of phoneme in speech: assimilation, accommodation, elision, reduction. Sound insertion
Theories of the nature of the syllable. Syllable formation. The rules of the syllable division. Functions of the syllable. Word stress.
Rhythm, tempo, pausation, tamber. Functions of intonation. Prosodic units: syllable, rhythmic group, intonation group, the utterance. The structure of the intonation group. Types of head, prehead, tail. Utterance stress
The Southern British type of English pronunciation, the Northern regional type of English pronunciation, the Scottish regional type of English pronunciation.
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The segmental units of morphology as part of the grammatical theory. The notion of morph. Types of morphs. The definition of morpheme.
The subject matter of syntax. The basic syntactic notions: the phrase, the sentence, the suprasegmental construction. Their definitions. The notions of minor and major syntax. The phrase and the sentence. Essential differences
Theories of parts of speech classifications. The principles of syntactico-distributional classification of English words. The three-criteria characterization of grammatical classes of words developed in home linguistics.
The Sentence. Its definition. Classification of sentences
Description of the English verb: the categorical meaning of the verb, its morphological system, syntactic function. The category of tense in different linguistic theories.
The sentence and the text
1. Этапы развития романтизма в Англии
10. William Makepeace Thackeray as a representative of English realism of the 19
Теккерей «Ярмарка Тщеславия»
Теория эстетизма и творчество Уайльда (1854\56 – 1900)
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
11. Literature of the turn of the centuries Fin de Siecle. Great Britain in the end of the 19
Творчество Дж. Голсуорси//Творчество Т. Харди. John Galsworthy
13. Naturalistic tendencies in the American literature of the turn of the centuries
Предпосылки натурализма
М. Твен основоположник реализма в литературе США
15. Interaction of realism and modernism in the English literature of the first half of the 20
Взаимодействие реализма и модернизма в английской литературе первой половины 20 века
«потерянного поколения» в творчестве Э. Хемигуэя; «американская мечта» в романах Ф. С. Фитцджеральда «Великий Гэтсби и Т. Драйзера «Американская трагедия»
17. The peculiarities of the Faulkner’s artistic world
Особенности художественного мира У
18. The creativity of Ernest Miller Hemingway, peculiarities and evolution of the literary method
Творчество Э
Philosophical novels
2. The poetry of English romanticism (Lake school, John Keats, P. B. Shelley)
Поэзия английского романтизма Озерная школа, Дж. Китс, П. Б
Postmodern literature
20. American literature after the Second World War
Особенности развития литературы США после Второй мировой войны
Becoming Sir Walter Scott. He dies in his house in 1832
George Gordon Byron
Лорд Джордж Гордон Байрон 1788-1824
5. The peculiarities of American Romanticism. American literature in the 20-s of the 19
Пионеров (романы Ф. Купера); тип героя и использование фольклора (новеллы В. Ирвинга); религиозная символика (Мелвилл и Готорн); ключевые идеи трансцендентализма (Р. Эмерсон, Г. Торо)
Двойничества; детективные новеллы; основные стилистические приемы
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Victorian literature
English literature
Вальтер Скотт
English literature Walter Scott (1771-1832)
William Wordsworth

Lexicology №3.

Semasiology. Word meaning. Polysemy. Homonymy.

  1. Semasiology. Its object and problems.

  2. Notional words and form (functional) words

  3. Word meaning and its relation to the notion expressed by a word

  4. The semantic structure of a word. Elements of the semantic structure

  5. Polysemy

  6. Semantic changes of development of words

  7. Homonymy

1. Semasiology is the branch of the study of language dealing with the meaning of words and word equivalents. If treated synchronically semasiology deals not with individual words but with semantic structures typical of the language studied and of its general semantic system. If treated diachronically semasiology studies the change in meaning which words undergo. Thus the main aims of semasiology are distinctive features and types of lexical meaning, polysemy and semantic structure of words, semantic development of words, its changes and classification, semantic groupings in the vocabulary system (synonyms, antonyms etc).

2. Semasiology deals mostly with notional words. Actually the definition of a word as a maximum free from holds good for notional words only. It is only notional words that can stand alone, have meaning and form a complete utterance. They can name different objects of reality, the qualities of these objects and actions in which they take part. In sentences they may function both as primary or secondary members. Form or functional words on the contrary are lexical units which are in reference to them. This group comprises auxiliary verbs, prepositions and conjunctions. Primarily they express grammatical relationships between words. At the same time we can’t see that they have no lexical meaning of their own.

3. Lexical meaning of a word is the realization of the notion by means of a definite language system. Thus lexical meaning is not identical to notion but it may reflect human notions and in this sense may be considered as the form of their existence. The lexical meaning of a word may have several components. First of all, the denotational components which make communication possible, in other words it is the notional content of a word. They may have connotational components in which we distinguish emotive charge, stylistic reference, expressivity and evaluation.

4. Words may have more than one meaning. Such words are called polysemantic. Polysemy exists only in language. All the meanings of a polysemantic word form its semantic structure. In other words it is defined as a structural set of interrelated elements. The semantic structure of a word is also a fact of language, not of speech. Every separate meaning of a word in its semantic structure is called a lexica-semantic variant. Lexica-semantic variants may be direct \ nominative and figurative, abstract and concrete, main \ primary and secondary, narrow extended, general and particular, stylistically neutral and stylistically coloured, archaic \ obsolete and present-day \ modern, the original ones and tee rived ones etc. One and the same LSV may belong to different groups.

5. The problem of polysemy is mainly the problem of interrelation and interdependence of the various meanings of the same polysemantic word. Polysemy may be view synchronically and diachronically. If view synchronically, it is understood as coexistence of the various meaning of eth same word at a certain period of time and the arrangement of these meanings in the semantic structure of the word. Polysemy viewed diachronically is a historical change in the meanings being added to the words already existing and in the rearrangement of these meaning in its semantic structure.

6. There are various types of semantic changes. All the types depend upon some comparison between the earlier and the new meaning of a given word. Semantic changes are usually classified as: enlargement or extension of meaning, narrowing, generalization, specialization, transfer, metaphor and metonymy, irradiation, amelioration, pejoration.

Narrowing of meaning \ specialization

Deor (old Eng) = wild animal, mid Eng = олень, modern Eng deer - олень

Hund (old) - cобака, hound (modern) - гончая

When meaning is narrowed and specialized the word means fewer objects. It means it gas fewer reference.

Amelioration (улучшение) \ elevation (возвышение)

It is a semantic shift undergone by words due to their reference coming up the social scale.

* cwen (old Eng) – a woman, later = queen.

The reverse process is Pejoration (уничижение) or degradation of meaning. It involves a lowering in social scale connected with the appearance of a derogatory and scornful emotional tone reflecting the disdain of the upper classes towards the lower ones.

* cnafa (old Eng) = a boy, knave = a servant. It became a term of abuse and scorn.

Generalization or widening of meaning.

We speak about this process when the word is applied to a give variety of reference. In most cases it may be combined with the higher order of abstraction, then in the notion expressed by earlier meaning. It is very typical of words to develop their concrete meaning to abstract ones.

* ridan (old Eng) – a person prepared for a ride. Now = to ride a horse, then to ride a bicycle, etc.

Transferal meaning. Metaphor

It is a transferal name based on the association of similarity and thus is actually a hidden comparison. * a fox – a cunning person. Metaphors may be based upon different types of similarity. 1) Similarity of shape *a head – a cabbage 2) analogy between duration of time and space *long speech – long distance 3) transition of proper names into common ones * a Don Juan, a Friday

In metonymy this transference is based on association of contiguity. This transfer may be conditioned by spatial, temporal, causal, symbolic, instrumental, functional and other connections. * chair (председатель) – spatial, she wears fox.

Hyperbole \ exaggeration

It is an exaggerated statement not meant to be understood literary but expressing an intensely emotional attitude of a spoken to what he is speaking about. Some of the most frequent emphatic words are awfully and terribly.

Litotes \ understatement

It may be defined as expressing the affirmative by the negative.

* good – not bad, great – not small, brave – not coward. It is used only in speech.


It is an expression of one’s feeling by words of opposite meaning/

* You’ve got us into a nice (=bad) mess.


It is the substitution of words of mild of vague connotations for expressions rough, unpleasant or for some other reason unmentionable. Within the diachronic approach the phenomenon has been repeatedly regarded by many linguists as taboo. With primitive people taboo is a prohibition meant as a safeguard against supernatural forces. (* Bear). With people of developed culture euphemism has nothing to do with taboo. It is dictated by social usage, moral tact and etiquette.

* to die – to pass away, mad – queer.

Causes of semantic changes

There are 2 types of causes. WE must distinguish linguistic and extra linguistic causes.

3 types of linguistic changes

1) differentiation between synonyms

land – земля - had the meaning the territory of the land

country – borrowed from French, but both denoted the territory of the land

country – state – new meaning. The process of discrimination of synonyms.

2) changes taking place in connection with ellipses and with fixed contexts

3) changes resulting from ambiguity in certain contexts

In the 16th century the verb to starve meant to die of hunger whereas originally it meant to die simply but was habitually used with the noun hunger.

Extra linguistic causes are observed in changes of meaning resulting from:

1) The development of the notion expressed and the thing named

*atom (old Greek) – indivisible. This meaning was lost. The word could be metaphorically used in the meaning of a tiny creature.

The changes of notions and things named go hand in hand.

7. Homonyms proper are words identical in pronunciation and spelling but different in meaning.

*seal – печать, тюлень

Words different in sound and meaning but accidentally identical in spelling are called homographs. * lead

Words of same sound but different in meaning and spelling are called homophones. *Buy – bye

Homonyms proper are classified into full homonyms and partial homonyms. Full homonyms are lexical when they are grammatically identical in all forms and differ only in lexical meaning.

*mass – масса, месса

Full homonyms are lexica-grammatical if their forms coincide but they belong to different parts of speech. *after – preposition and adverb

Partial homonyms are lexical when they coincide only in one form.

*Found (to find) – to found

Partial lexica-grammatical homonyms are different grammatical forms of the words of one syntactic class.

*Asked – past indefinite and past perfect (simple homonymy)

Or they belong to different syntactic classes

* seals - печати

He seals – present simple (complex homonymy)

Causes which bring about Homonymy

1) sound development which causes words of different origin to coincide in sound

*lufian (old Eng) – verb

lufu (noun) - love

2) Change of meaning, divergent sense development

*flour (middle English) – цветок, колос

Flower and flour – different words

3) both may be combined with loss of endings and other morphological processes and changes of spelling.

The problems of homonymy

The main problem of homonymy is the criteria of distinguishing it from polysemy. 1) According to the etymological criterion homonyms are words having different sources. 2) According to the criteria of spelling homomorphemes are excluded from homonyms and only homographs remain. 3) When homonyms belong to different parts of speech they differ not only in their semantic structure but also in their syntactic function, the paradigm and in distribution. 4) The criteria of context are not very reliable. Homonyms are used in different contexts because their meaning is different, but different lexica-semantic variants of a polysemantic word are also realized in different contexts. 5) the semantic criteria is the most important according to it homonyms have unrelated meanings, whereas different meanings of a polysemantic word are related to each other, but the difficulty is in which meanings it should be considered related and in which not. That’s why words may be described by some dictionaries as homonyms and by others as lexica-semantic variants of a polysemantic word.

*fellow – feoh (olg Eng) – ругательство, скотина

Marshal – mara + scalh (old Eng, German) – лошадь+слуга = конюх

Duke – вождь, герцог

A green man – неопытный человек

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