By melody we understand the fluctuations of the pitch of the voice when we speak. These fluctuations are the rises and the falls of the pitch of the voice. There are 2 principal tones in English: the falling tone (tune 1) and the rising tone (tune 2). These basic tunes which have empathic variations: rise-fall, fall-rise, rise-fall-rise.
There also exist the so-called level tones which have their own phuliauties. E.g. High level tone is typical for very emotional speech. Low level tone shows dissatisfaction, grumbling. Mid-level is used in some cases when the speaker gains time forming his idea. It is also typical for rendering English poetry.
The falling tone expresses finality. It is definite and categorical in nature.
The rising tone expresses non-finality, hesitation, doubt.
Function of speech melody.
The falling tone is used in categorical statements to express a complete idea in orders and commands, in urgent requests, in exclamations splendid, in special question in the corresponding parts of alternative and disjunctive questions.
The rising tone is used in general questions, polite requests and in the corresponding parts of alternative and disjunctive questions.
The fall-rise is widely used in conversations. It expresses various implications such as doubt, hesitation, contradiction, friendliness.
It is typical to pronounce special questions with low-fall, but if you want to sound fluently you may use low-rise or even fall-rise.
The rising falling tune sounds more categorical than low-fall. In the rise-falling tune the emotion is higher. It is expressed by the slight rise of the pitch and then the immediate fall. It usually express surprise, disagreement or protest.
So the basic functions of melody are: the syntactical function consists in the use of the certain melodic tone in certain communicative types of sentences, the empathic function helps to express various kinds of emotions, additional shades of communication implications of friendliness, disagreement, protest depending on the context.
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