Entrepreneurial Potential of Russian population: gem russia (2006-2007) Head – Prof. Dr. Alexander chepurenko icon

Entrepreneurial Potential of Russian population: gem russia (2006-2007) Head – Prof. Dr. Alexander chepurenko



НазваниеEntrepreneurial Potential of Russian population: gem russia (2006-2007) Head – Prof. Dr. Alexander chepurenko
Дата конвертации19.07.2013
Размер445 b.
ТипДокументы


Entrepreneurial Potential of Russian population: GEM Russia (2006-2007)

  • Head – Prof. Dr. Alexander CHEPURENKO

  • Team: PhD, Associate Prof. Olga Obraztsova, PhD, Associate Prof. Tatiana Alimova, Assistant Prof. Maria Gabelko,

  • Student staff: Alla Alieva, Maria Denisova, Julia Filatova, Vladimir Lobachev, Linara Mulukova, Ekaterina Murzacheva, Alexandra Shipilova


About GEM:

  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) – international longitudinal comparative project on the state of entrepreneurial activity of population and its impact on economic growth

  • Started in 1999 г. in 10 countries, in 2007 г. - 42 participating countries.

  • Annually published general and special reports (see at: www.gemconsortium.org)

  • More than 200 researchers

  • Russia since 2006 presented by a joint team from St. Petersburg State University (Dept. of Management) and HSE (Laboratory of Sociological Research)

  • Participating universities are obliged to use the full datasets for research and education.



Most important tools of the GEM

  • Adult population survey (representative for the respective country),

  • Experts surveys on Entrepreneurship Framework Conditions in respective countries

  • Face-to-face in-depth interviews with local experts (venture capitalists, financiers, state representatives, recognised entrepreneurs, analysts etc.)



Project purpose

  • To collect and analyse data on entrepreneurial activity of population, its structure and role as a factor of economic growth





Stages of entrepreneurial activity



Most important indicators

  • Total Entrepreneurial Activity index (ТЕА) – share of adult population (18 to 64 aged), taking part at a start-up or being owners/managers of firma younger than 42 months;

  • Nascent entrepreneurship rate

  • Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently a nascent entrepreneur, i.e., actively involved in setting up a business they will own or co-own; this business has not paid salaries, wages, or any other payments to the owners for more than 3 months.

  • New business ownership rate

  • Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently an owner-manager of a new business, i.e., owning and managing a running business that has paid salaries, wages, or any other payments to the owners for more than three months, but not more than 42 months.

  • Established business ownership rate

  • Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently an owner-manager of an established business, i.e., owning and managing a running business that has paid salaries, wages, or any other payments to the owners for more than 42 months.

  • High-growth expectation early-stage entrepreneurial activity

  • Percentage of 18-64 population who are either nascent entrepreneurs or owner-managers of a new business (as defined above) and expect to employ at least 20 employees five years from now.

  • Business discontinuation rate

  • Percentage of 18-64 population who have, in the past 12 months, discontinued a business, either by selling, shutting down, or otherwise discontinuing an owner/management relationship with the business.



Special issues

  • High Growth Report (2005) looked at the how much high growth potential entrepreneurship there is the world and the characteristics of high growth potential entrepreneurs. There is a nearly twice the level of high growth entrepreneurship in the US compared to the UK, Canada or Germany. 10% of all entrepreneurial start ups expect to create more than 75% of the jobs worldwide.

  • Women and Entrepreneurship: Systematic differences exist in the entrepreneurial activity rates of men and women across all countries participating in GEM. Despite fewer women then men are involved in starting or owning a business, the number of women is increasing and women who are well-educated, confident about their skills, have higher levels of household income and jobs are more likely to be entrepreneurs than their less affluent counterparts.

  • Annual Financing Report: covers the financing of start up firms within the countries participating in GEM.



Sources of data for Russia, 2006 - 2007

  • Data sets of 2 APS (vendor: Levada-Center, May 2006, N = 1894, May 2007, N = 1939)

  • Sanple representative for adult population of Russia older than 16 years (confidence interval – 5 %), but not fot the entrepreneurial stratum itself

  • Data of 2 years observation not sufficient to speak on tendencies



Some figures on entrepreneurial potential of Russia in 2006-2007



Age and Motivation Structure, 2006-2007 (%)



Indicators of entrepreneurial activity as for stages and gender (% of adult population)



Cross-country comparisons: Russia in the context of GEM nations



TEA and GDP per capita compared, GEM 2006



Indicators of some GEM nations in 2006



Indicators of some GEM nations in 2007



TEA in 2006



Established entrepreneurship in 2006



TEA in 2007



Established entrepreneurship in 2007



Russia compared

  • According to GEM 2006-2007, Russia belongs to the biggest cluster of countries with a modal early entrepreneurial activity rate;

  • Entrepreneurial activity in Russia is significantly lower that in countries with comparable per capita GDP

  • Among BRIC countries has Russia the lowest TEA (2,5 – 3 times lower than in other BRIC countries).



Decline of most indicators dynamics in Russia, 2006-2007

  • ТЕА decreased: 2,7 % in 2007 compared with 4,86% in 2006

  • Nascent EA – decrease of 61,6 %,

  • New business owners EA – decrease of 21,7%

  • EEI (Early entrepreneurship increase coefficient = Nascent : Discontinued):

  • in 2006 = 3,5,

  • in 2007 = 1,35.



Some positive signs in Russia, 2006-2007

  • Motivation of early entrepreneurship:

  • In 2006 Opportunity : Necessity = 5:3,

  • In 2007 – ca. 7:1

  • Gender structure of early entrepreneurship

  • Stable high share of women EE (ca. 40 %)



Reasons for Russia to participate at the GEM

  • Possibilities for cross-national comparisons,

  • Amending of lack of official statistics on entrepreneurial potential of Russian population

  • Tools for Quality Assessment on the field of SME support policy (some GEM indexes can be used as indicators of targeted, real and achieved efficiency)

  • GEM instruments are relatively simple, cheap and effective if used on a regular basis.



Thank you for your attention!






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