Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов. Тобольск 2009 Печатается по решению редакционно- издательского совета тгпи им. Д. И. Менделеева icon

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов. Тобольск 2009 Печатается по решению редакционно- издательского совета тгпи им. Д. И. Менделеева



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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Тобольский государственный педагогический институт имени Д.И. Менделеева»




Деловой английский

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов.


Тобольск – 2009


Печатается по решению редакционно-

издательского совета ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева


ББК 81.432.1-923

Т 33


деловой английский: учебно-методическое пособие./ сост. Ю.С.Воротникова – Тобольск: ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева, 2009. – 64 с. – 100 экз.


Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых факультетов.

В пособии освещены основные разделы курса «Трудоустройство», «Организация компании», «Бренды», «Маркетинг», «Глобализация», «Международная торговля», «Деньги», «Культура и бизнес», «Деловая коммуникация».

В начале каждой темы студентам предлагается материал ознакомительного характера с основной лексикой раздела, затем следуют упражнения, направленные на закрепление тематического вокабуляра, и ряд заданий творческого характера.


Рецензент: Тимофеева А.М., кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры ГД ТИИ ТюмГНГУ

Абиева Н.А., кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры АЯ РГПУ им.А.И.Герцена


© Воротникова Юлия Сергеевна, 2009

© ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева, 2009


Contents

Unit #1. Presentation……………………………………………………………….…..…5

Unit #2. Business correspondence……………………………………………………….11

Unit #3. Employment……………………………………………………….……………23

Unit #4. Organization…………………………………………………….……………...28

Unit #5. Marketing…………………………………………………………………….…33

Unit #6. Brands…………………………………………………………….……………..38

Unit #7. Money…………………………………………………………………………...43

Unit #8. Globalization………………………………………………...……………….....49

Unit #9. Culture and business…………………………………………………………...56


Unit #1. Presentation.


I. Read the texts about main principles of business communication, translate and summarize the key points of information presentation.
^

The seven essentials of business communication

There are seven essential elements to successful business communication:

If you are going to communicate effectively in business it is essential that you have a solid grasp of these seven elements.


So let's look at each in turn...

 

Structure


How you structure your communication is fundamental to how easily it is absorbed and understood by your audience.

Every good communication should have these three structural elements:

  1. an opening

  2. a body

  3. a close

This structural rule holds true no matter what your communication is -- a memo, a phone call, a voice mail message, a personal presentation, a speech, an email, a webpage, or a multi-media presentation.

Remember - your communication's audience can be just one person, a small team, an auditorium full of people or a national, even global, group of millions.

In this instance size doesn't matter -- the rules remain the same.

Opening


An opening allows your communication's audience to quickly understand what the communication is about. Short, sharp and to the point, a good opening lets your audience quickly reach a decision of whether or not to pay attention to your message. Time is a precious resource, after all, and the quicker you can 'get to the point' and the faster your audience can make that 'disregard/pay attention' decision the more positively they will view you --- which can be VERY important if you need or want to communicate with them in the future.

 Body

Here's where you get to the 'heart' of your message. It is in the body of the message that you communicate all of your facts and figures relative to the action you want your communication's audience to take after attending to your message. Keep your facts, figures and any graphs or charts you might present to the point. Don't bog down your audience with irrelevant material, or charts with confusing, illegible numbers and colours.

Close


The Close is where you sum up your communication, remind your audience of your key points, and leave them with a clear understanding of what you want them to do next. The more powerfully you can end your communication, the more easily remembered it will be by your audience.

 Clarity

Be clear about the messaqe you want to deliver, as giving a confused message to your audience only ends up with them being confused and your message being ignored. If you are giving a message about, say, overtime payments don't then add in messages about detailed budget issues or the upcoming staff picnic -- UNLESS they ABSOLUTELY fit in with your original message. It's far better and clearer for your audience if you create a separate communication about these ancilliary issues.

 Consistency

Nothing more upsets a regular reader of, say, your newsletter than inconsistency of your message. Taking a position on an issue one week, only to overturn it the next, then overturn THAT position the following week, only breeds distrust in your message.

And distrust in you!

People who distrust you are exceedingly unlikely to take the action you wish them to take. They are also highly unlikely to pay any attention to your future messages. As well as consistency amongst multiple messages, be aware that inconsistency within your message can be just as deadly to audience comprehension.

At the risk of sounding like the Grouchy Grammarian, please make sure that your tenses remain the same, that your viewpoint doesn't wander between the 1st and 3rd person and back again (unless you deliberately want to create a linguistic or story-telling effect — be careful with this!) and that your overall 'theme' or message doesn't change.

 

^ Effective Public Speaking

By: Stephen D. Boyd

Delivering an effective presentation to 20 or to 200 people is difficult. Because listeners have better access to information since the internet became commonplace, audiences expect more content from speakers today. In addition, because of the entertainment slant of most media today, audiences want a presentation delivered with animation, humor, and pizzazz.

Here is a quick guide to giving an effective and interesting presentation your very first time, based from my experiences in delivering over l500 speeches during the past 20 years.

^ Begin with something to get the attention of the audience.
This might be a startling statement, statistic, or your own story. Listeners pay close attention when a person begins with, "Two weeks ago as I was driving to work a car pulled out in front of me...." You could begin with a current event: "You might have read in the paper this morning about the flood that...." A question is another way to make people listen. "How many of you feel our society spends too much on medical care?" might be a way to begin a presentation about curbing costs. Whatever technique you use, when you grab the attention of the audience you are on your way to a successful speech.

^ Second, be energetic in delivery.

Speak with variety in your voice. Slow down for a dramatic point and speed up to show excitement. Pause occasionally for effect. Don't just stand behind the lectern, but move a step away to make a point. When you are encouraging your audience, take a step toward them. Gesture to show how big or wide or tall or small an object is that you are describing. Demonstrate how something works or looks or moves as you tell about it. Show facial expression as you speak. Smile when talking about something pleasant and let your face show other emotions as you tell about an event or activity. Whatever your movements, they should have purpose.

^ Structure your speech.

Don't have more than two or three main points, and preview in the beginning what those points will be. With each point, have two or three pieces of support, such as examples, definitions, testimony, or statistics. Visual aids are important when you want your audience to understand a process or concept or understand a financial goal. Line graphs are best for trends. Bar graphs are best for comparisons and pie graphs are best for showing distribution of percentages.

^ Tie your points together with transitions.

These could be signposts such as "First," "Second," or "Finally." Use an internal summary by simply including the point you just made and telling what you plan to talk about next. "Now that we have talked about structure, let's move on to the use of stories," would be an example. When you have an introduction, two or three main points with support for each, appropriate transitions, and a conclusion, you will have your speech organized in a way that the audience can follow you easily.

^ Tell your own story somewhere in the presentation...
... especially in a technical presentation. Include a personal experience that connects to your speech content, and the audience will connect with you. You want to help the audience link emotionally with what you are talking about, and the personal experience does that. With almost any topic you might choose, you have at least one "war story" to relate to the topic. When you tell the story, simply start at the beginning and move chronologically through the narrative, including answers to the "W" questions: "Who," What, "When," "Why," and "Where."

^ To add interest and understanding to your speech, include a visual aid.
A visual aid could be an object, a flip chart, a PowerPoint presentation, overhead projector slides, or a dry erase board. Whatever visual you are using, make sure everyone can see it. The best way to insure this is to put the visual where you will be speaking, and then find the seat farthest from it and determine if you can read the visual from that seat. Introduce the visual properly rather than simply throwing it at your audience; explain what the visual will do before you unveil it. Don't allow the visual to become a silent demonstration. Keep talking as you show the visual. You are still the main event and your visual is an aid. Look at your audience, not your visual. When the visual is not in use, hide it from the audience. Humans are a curious lot, tending to keep looking at the object and losing track of the speaker - you!

If you are delivering a persuasive speech, in addition to your own stories include testimony of experts whom the audience respects and whose views reinforce your points.

Add a key statistic when possible to show the seriousness of what you are discussing. For example, if I were discussing the need for improved listening to better serve your customers, I might add that although we spend half of our communication time in listening, our listening efficiency is only about 25%. By using stories, testimony, and statistics in your persuasive talk, you add depth to your evidence.

^ Look at the audience as you speak.

If it is a small audience, you can look at each person in a short period of time. If it is a large audience, look at the audience in small "clumps" and move from one clump to another. One way to insure good eye contact is to look at your audience before you start to speak. Go to the lectern and pause, smile, look at the audience, and then speak. This will help you maintain good eye contact throughout your presentation as well as commanding immediate attention.

^ One of the ways to have consistently good eye contact is not to read your speech.
Use note cards that have key words on them. The word or phrase should trigger the thought in your mind and then you can speak it. If you are including a quotation or complex statistics, reading from your note card actually lends credibility. If you write out your speech you will tend to read it and lose eye contact with the audience, as well as not being as enthusiastic in delivery as when you speak from note cards.


^ Include a "wow" factor in your speech.

Something in your speech should make your audience think, "Wow!" It could be a story, a dramatic point, an unusual statistic, or an effective visual that helps the audience understand immediately. With a "wow" factor, you then have something to look forward to in the speech that you know will have an impact on your audience. You'll become a more enthusiastic speaker because the "wow" factor will get you as well as your audience pumped for the speech.

^ Consider using a touch of humor in your speech.

Don't panic at this suggestion; you are not becoming a comedian but rather lightening up a serious speech so that people will be more accepting and interested in your ideas. Humor will help you to be perceived as an amiable person, and it is hard for people to disagree or be bored if they are smiling at you. Until you have lots of experience, keep your humor short. Perhaps inject a one-liner or a quotation. Yogi Berra said a lot of funny things. "You can observe a lot just by watching" for example. Tell a short embarrassing moment in your life that you might have thought not funny at the time. Now that you can laugh at the experience, you understand the old adage, "Humor is simply tragedy separated by time and space." Don't poke fun at your audience; you should be the object of any shortcoming, showing that you can laugh at yourself. Avoid long stories or jokes. Even seasoned speakers know that funny stories soon become unfunny if they go on too long. Probably the least risky use of humor is a cartoon. The cartoon is separate from you and if people don't laugh, you don't feel responsible. (Be sure to secure permission to use it.)

^ Finally, leave the audience with something to think about.
People remember best what you say last. You might summarize your main points, or you might complete the statement, "What I want you to do as a result of this presentation is...." But beyond that, make your last words a thought to ponder. For example, I might end a speech on becoming a better speaker with "As Cicero said centuries ago, 'The skill to do comes with the doing.'"

A more modern guide to effective public speaking was penned by some unknown sage: "Know your stuff. Know whom you are stuffing. Know when they are stuffed."

One never becomes a "perfect" speaker; developing public speaking skills is a life-long experience. But the points discussed here will get you started in becoming the speaker you want to be and the speaker your audience wants to hear.


II. Having studied the previous texts and the information from the extra reading section carefully, divide into small groups (2-4 people) and prepare a presentation of your own company. While preparing your speech stick to the following plan:

  1. introduce yourself;

  2. introduce your company’s name and emblem;

  3. introduce the business you are involved in;

  4. explain your company name and emblem connected directly with your business;

  5. give historical background of your company and its present day work analysis;

  6. point out titles every person in your group holds in your company, duties and responsibilities he/she performs there;

  7. give your company’s address, phone number and e-mail.



Unit #2. Business correspondence


I. Read the text about fundamentals of business written communication.


Business Letter Etiquette

By: Neil Payne

Business etiquette is fundamentally concerned with building relationships founded upon courtesy and politeness between business personnel. Etiquette, and especially business etiquette, is a means of maximizing your potential by presenting yourself positively.

Writing a business letter is not simply a matter of expressing your ideas clearly. The way you write a letter and the etiquette you employ may have a significant impact on your success or failure in business.

Failure to observe correct business letter etiquette can result in you adopting an inappropriate tone, causing offense or misunderstandings, lack of clarity or purpose and hostility or soured relations.

The foundation of good business letter etiquette is 'Think before you write'. You should be considering who the letter is addressed to, how and why? This will then influence style, content and structure.

Here we cover some of the main issues relating to good business letter etiquette:

^ Addressing the Letter

Always make sure you have spelt the recipient's name correctly. It may sound simple, but you would be surprised at how many people fail to do so. The recipient's name should include titles, honours or qualifications if deemed necessary.

Many people use the 'Dear Sir/Yours Faithfully' formula when addressing the receiver. Although this is acceptable for routine matters it is impersonal and should not be used when dealing with those you know, queries or complaints. With these the 'Dear Mr…./Yours Sincerely' formula should be adopted.

Once a certain level of familiarity is reached it is not considered bad etiquette to use phrases such as 'Kind Regards' or 'All the best' at the end of the letter.

Confidentiality

If the content of the letter is sensitive, personal or confidential it must be marked appropriately. Marking the letter 'confidential' will suffice in highlighting this fact. If you only want the letter read by the receiver without the interception of a secretary or PA, mark it as 'Private', 'Personal' or 'Strictly Confidential'. If you have received such a business letter it is good etiquette to reciprocate and ensure that all future correspondence is kept at that level of confidentiality.

Style

Proper business letter etiquette requires that a consistent and clear approach, combined with courtesy, be employed. As a rule of thumb, aim to keep all business letters formal in style. Even when the receiver is familiar to you, it is advisable maintain a certain level of business etiquette as the letter may be seen by others or referred to by a third party in the future.

However, this does not mean you should use long or uncommon words to express yourself. This merely looks odd and makes the letter unreadable. It is best to read a letter first and consider whether you would speak to that person face to face in the same way. If not, then re-write it.

Letters should be signed personally. It looks unprofessional, cold and somewhat lazy if a letter is left unsigned. However, having a secretary or PA sign on your behalf is not considered a breach of business etiquette.

Humour

Humour can be used in business letters but only when the writer is completely positive the recipient will understand the joke or pun. From a business etiquette perspective it may be wise to avoid humour. This is because firstly, the letter may be read during a crisis, after receiving bad news or on a sombre occasion. Any other time the humour may have been appreciated but under these circumstances it may dramatically backfire. Secondly, the written word is open to misinterpretation. Your sarcastic or ironic remark may be taken the wrong way. Thirdly, it is possible that the letter may be read by a third party who may deem the humour inappropriate and pursue a complaint of some sort.

Responding

Good business letter etiquette calls for letters to be responded to promptly or within certain guidelines. This may normally be considered as 5 working days. If this is not possible then some sort of acknowledgement should be sent either by letter, fax, phone or e-mail.

Always use reference numbers or clearly state the purpose of the letter at the top, for example, 'Re: Business Letter Etiquette Enquiry'. This allows the receiver to trace correspondence and immediately set your letter within a context.

When replying to points or questions the proper etiquette is to respond in the same order as they were asked.

^ Managing Conflict

Letters are often an arena for conflicts or disputes. Even in these circumstances there are rules of business letter etiquette that should be adhered to.

If you initiate the dispute then,

1) explain and set out your case simply and clearly to the most appropriate person,
2) offer information that may be required by the other party to help answer questions,
3) indicate a time scale by which you expect a reply or the matter to be resolved.

If you are receiving the dispute then

1) inform senior colleagues who may be affected or who may be able to offer assistance,
2) submit all replies in draft form for a senior colleague to check,
3) stick to the facts and the merits of the case and do not allow emotions to become involved,
4) be polite, patient and courteous.


At the same time there exist some exact business letter-writing rules as the routine business letter lacks variety and has certain ac­cepted phrases which are in general use. The writer should follow the main principles of writing a business letter: to introduce the matter without delay, to give complete information, to avoid repetition and to use the following letter parts which are considered to be conventional:


/. ^ The heading (заголовок/шапка)

The heading includes the company's name (1-a) and address (1-b), its telephone/fax number(s) and telex code (1-е), E-mail (1-d) and the type of business (1-е). There is a growing tendency in Britain to begin every line at the left-hand margin and to avoid punctuation in the date, the name and the address. However, it is considered necessary to put a full stop after abbreviations, as in the case of Co. (Company), Ltd. (Lim­ited) and St. (Street).

There are some differences in address writing between American and British styles.

British style American style





Ms J. Simpson

Foreign Rights Manager

Chapman & Hall Ltd.

11 New Fetter Lane

London EC4P 4EE

England









Ms A. Arafel

Product Information Manager

McCraw-Hill Book Co

1221 Avenue of the Americas

New York, N.Y. 10020

USA



If you write a letter from the USA, pay attention to state codes and abbreviations of states.

2. The date (дата отправления)

The simplest and most common way to put the date is this: 12 No­vember 1999. But there is an alternative way of writing the date:

British style American style

12th November 1999 12 Nov. 1999 November 12, 1999 11/12/1999

month/date/year

3. The inside address (адрес получателя)

The name and the address of the addressee are typed on the left against the margin. The number of the office in the address precedes the name of the street. The name and the code of the city are written in the next line and the last line is occupied by the name of the country. If the addressee of your letter is a partnership company, called by family names, it is necessary to use Messrs (an abbreviated form of Messieurs, which is the French word for gentlemen) in front of the name of the company.

4. The salutation (обращение) and the complimentary close (заключительное приветствие)

In England business letters addressed to a company begin with the words «Dear Sirs» (in the USA -- «Gentlemen»). When addressed to an individual within the firm, the salutation may be «Dear Sir (Madam)», or «Dear Mr... (Mrs...)», «Dear Miss...», or «Dear Ms...» (Ms [miz] is the form of salutation of a female addressee without indication of her marital status). The most usual complimentary close is «Yours faithfully», less commonly «Yours truly». If the recipient is addressed by his or her name, then the complimentary close takes the form «Yours sincerely».

The complementary close may be written differently in British and American languages.

^ British style American style

Yours faithfully, Sincerely yours,

Yours sincerely, Yours truly.

5. The signature (подпись)

The name of the person signing the letter is typed below the space left for the signature, and is followed on the next line by his position in the company or by the name of the department he rep­resents. The complimentary close and the signature are placed against the left-hand margin. If the person in charge cannot sign the letter and some other employee signs it instead, it is necessary to put the word «for» (за) or «p.p» (per pro(c) = по поручению) immediately before the typed name of the person responsible for the letter.

^ 6. Enclosure (приложение)

The word «Enclosure», often reduced to «Enc.» or «End.», is typed against the left-hand margin some distance below the signature and indi­cates that the document or documents are enclosed with the letter.

7. ^ The reference (ссылка на отправителя) and the subject line (строка, в которой обозначают тему переписки)

The reference is typed on the same line as the date, but on the left and consists of the initials of the person who signs the letter (RT) and those of the typist (MS). The subject line is used to indicate the subject matter of a letter and appears below the reference.


Summarizing above mentioned rules, a typical business letter looks in the following way.

Minor peculiarities of business letter writing are pointed additionally and explained after the sample of a letter.

Sample of a business letter



Government of Canada 1


Office of the Chairman

Public Service Commission2

Ottawa, Ontario

KIA ON7


Attention: P. Smith 3

December 8, 19964

Dear Sir:5


Ref: PC Program analyst6

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Yours sincerely,

A.Robertson

A.Robertson7

Director

General Services Division


Encl.

cc: D.Dube 9


1. A lot of business letters are written on the paper of a special form which includes the company name, the company address, the company phone number and other additional information about the company if necessary. The place of this information may vary in the form from company to company: it may be before the heading or after the name and title of the letter sender.

2. The address of the letter receiver is to be put in the left top corner.

3. This line is put in the letter in the case when the letter is sent in a company but addressed to a certain individual personally. It also may be doubled on the envelope in the left bottom corner.

4. The rules of the date writing in British and American business cultures have been mentioned earlier.

5. There is a column or a coma put after the salutation.

6. This line may appear in a letter if the further information is taken from an official document which name is pointed after the sign “Ref:”.

7. Signature, its decipherment, title of the letter sender and the company name follow each other and are written in the right bottom corner.

8. This line refers to the people who are sent with the copies of the letter.
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